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دفاع شیر خواری

آزاد انسائیکلوپیڈیا، وکیپیڈیا توں

دفاع شیر خواری (Defense of infancy) دفاع د‏‏ی اک شکل اے جس وچ مدعا علیہان اک "شیرخوار" د‏‏ی تعریف وچ شمار لئی جانے د‏‏ی وجہ تو‏ں انہاں نو‏‏ں انہاں دے اعمال دے لئی مجرمانہ ذمہ داری تو‏ں عذر دے طور سزاوار قرار نئيں دتا جا سکدا۔

مجرمانہ ذمہ داری د‏‏ی عمر بلحاظ ملک

[سودھو]
ملک عمر حوالہ ملاحظات
 امریکہ &10000000000000006000000 6-12 [۱] [۲];[۱][۳][۴],[۱][۵][۶][۷]
 بھارت &10000000000000007000000 7
 برما &10000000000000007000000 7
 نائیجیریا &10000000000000007000000 7
 پاکستان &10000000000000007000000 7
 سنگاپور &10000000000000007000000 7
 سوڈان &10000000000000007000000 7
 تنزانیہ &10000000000000007000000 7
 انٹیگوا تے باربودا &10000000000000008000000 8 [۸] [۹]
 انڈونیشیا &10000000000000008000000 8
 کینیا &10000000000000008000000 8
 بنگلہ دیش &10000000000000009000000 9
 ایتھوپیا &10000000000000009000000 9
 ایران &10000000000000009000000 9 (لڑکیاں); 15 (لڑکے) [۱۰][۱۱] 9 لڑکیو‏ں دے لئی; 15 لڑکےآں دے لئی
 آسٹریلیا &10000000000000010000000 10 [۱۲] [۱۳]
[۱۲][۱۴][۱۵]
 ہانگ کانگ &10000000000000010000000 10 [۱۶]
 نیپال &10000000000000010000000 10
 نیوزی لینڈ &10000000000000010000000 10 [۱۷][۱۸]
 دکھنی افریقہ &10000000000000010000000 10 [۱۹]
 سویٹزرلینڈ &10000000000000010000000 10
 تھائی لینڈ &10000000000000010000000 10
 برطانیہ &10000000000000010000000 10 [۲۰][۲۱][۲۲][۲۳] [۲۴]
 افغانستان &10000000000000012000000 12 [۲۵] [۲۶]
 انڈورا &10000000000000012000000 12 [۲۷]
 کینیڈا &10000000000000012000000 12 [۲۸]
 کوسٹاریکا &10000000000000012000000 12 [۲۹] [۳۰]
 ہنگری &10000000000000012000000 12 [۳۱] [۳۱][۳۲]
 آئرلینڈ &10000000000000012000000 12 [۳۳]
 اسرائیل &10000000000000012000000 12
 مراکش &10000000000000012000000 12
 نیدرلینڈز &10000000000000012000000 12
 سکاٹ لینڈ (UK) &10000000000000012000000 12 [۲۳] [۳۴]
 ترکی &10000000000000012000000 12
 یوگنڈا &10000000000000012000000 12
 الجزائر &10000000000000013000000 13 [۳۵] [۳۶]
 فرانس &10000000000000013000000 13
 البانیا &10000000000000014000000 14 [۳۷] [۳۸]
 انگولا &10000000000000014000000 14 [۳۹] [۴۰]
 آسٹریا &10000000000000014000000 14
 بولیویا &10000000000000014000000 14 [۴۱][۴۲] [۴۳]
 چین &10000000000000014000000 14 [۱۶][۴۴][۴۵]
 کروشیا &10000000000000014000000 14 [۴۶] [۴۷]
 اسٹونیا &10000000000000014000000 14
 جرمنی &10000000000000014000000 14 [۴۸] [۴۹]
 اٹلی &10000000000000014000000 14 [۵۰]
 جاپان &10000000000000014000000 14 [۵۱]
 پیراگوئے &10000000000000014000000 14 [۵۲] [۵۳]
 رومانیہ &10000000000000014000000 14
 روس &10000000000000014000000 14 [۵۴] [۵۵]
 سلوینیا &10000000000000014000000 14
 جنوبی کوریا &10000000000000014000000 14
 سپین &10000000000000014000000 14 [۵۶]
 تائیوان &10000000000000014000000 14 [۵۷][۵۸]
 یوکرین &10000000000000014000000 14
 ویتنام &10000000000000014000000 14
 چیک جمہوریہ &10000000000000015000000 15 [۵۹]
 ڈنمارک &10000000000000015000000 15
 مصر &10000000000000015000000 15
 فن لینڈ &10000000000000015000000 15 [۶۰]
 آئس لینڈ &10000000000000015000000 15
 ناروے &10000000000000015000000 15 [۶۱]
 فلپائن &10000000000000015000000 15 [۶۲][۶۳] [۶۴][۶۵][۶۶][۶۷]
 پولینڈ &10000000000000017000000 15-18 [۶۸] [۶۹][۷۰]
 سویڈن &10000000000000015000000 15
 ازبکستان &10000000000000015000000 15
 ارجنٹائن &10000000000000016000000 16 [۷۱][۷۲]
 بیلجیم &10000000000000016000000 16 [۷۳]
 چلی &10000000000000016000000 16 [۷۴][۷۵]
 DR Congo &10000000000000016000000 16 [۷۳]
 پرتگال &10000000000000016000000 16 [۷۶]
 برازیل &10000000000000018000000 18 [۷۷][۷۸][۷۹][۸۰]
 کولمبیا &10000000000000018000000 18 [۷۹]
 ایکواڈور &10000000000000018000000 18 [۸۱]
 میکسیکو &10000000000000018000000 18 [۸۲]
 پیرو &10000000000000018000000 18 [۷۹]
 یوراگوئے &10000000000000018000000 18 [۸۳]

حوالے

[سودھو]
  1. ۱.۰ ۱.۱ ۱.۲ Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  2. Age determined by each state; the minimum age is 6 (North Carolina)
  3. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  4. however, only 15 states have set minimum ages
  5. which range from 6 to 12 years. States without statutory minimum ages rely on common law, which means that 7
  6. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  7. is the minimum age in most states; for federal crimes the age has been set at 11.
  8. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  9. According to Articles 1 and 3 of the Juvenile Act, Courts must have regard to the welfare of those under 16.
  10. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  11. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  12. ۱۲.۰ ۱۲.۱ Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  13. Age of criminal responsibility in Australia.
  14. Rebuttable presumption of incapacity of committing crime: under 14.
  15. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  16. ۱۶.۰ ۱۶.۱ Section 3 of the Juvenile Offenders Ordinance 2003 (Chapter 226, Laws of Hong Kong)
  17. 10 years for murder and manslaughter, 12 for crimes with a maximum imprisonment of fourteen years or more; 14 for all other offences.
  18. Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989 No 24 (as at 23 July 2011), Public Act – New Zealand Legislation
  19. The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 came into effect 1 April 2010. There is a rebuttable presumption that a child between the ages of 10 and 14 lacks criminal capacity.
  20. The Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (23 & 24 Geo.5 c.12), section 50; as amended by The Children and Young Persons Act 1963 (c.37), section 16(1) [۱]
  21. Young offenders section of the UK Governments official website
  22. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  23. ۲۳.۰ ۲۳.۱ Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010
  24. 10 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; 12 in Scotland
  25. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  26. According to Articles 12 and 45 of the Juvenile Code, children aged 7–12 can be subject to warnings, supervision by social services, or confinement to a rehabilitation centre.
  27. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  28. Criminal Code of Canada, s. 13; may receive reduced sentencing under the Youth Criminal Justice Act until age 18.
  29. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  30. Even though legal procedures and punishment are different for offenders who are under 18, all offenders who are 12 or older may be sentenced to as much as 15 years of incarceration
  31. ۳۱.۰ ۳۱.۱ http://www.politics.hu/20120627/justice-ministry-rejects-unicef-criticism-of-new-criminal-code-provisions-on-youthful-offenders/
  32. 12 only for premeditated homicide, voluntary manslaughter and bodily harm leading to death or resulting in life-threatening injuries; 14 for other crimes.
  33. Children and the criminal justice system in Ireland, Irish Government official website
  34. If a compulsory intervention is considered necessary, a child aged between 8 and 12 years may be dealt with through the Children's Hearings system.
  35. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  36. Children aged 13–18 are subject to attenuated penalties.
  37. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  38. Article 1 of the Code distinguishes between offences and contraventions. Article 12 mandates that the latter (which are less serious) have a higher age limit of 16.
  39. Criminal Code of Angola, Article 17
  40. Minimum and maximum sentences are reduced by two thirds between 14 and 16, and half between 16 and 18. The needs of rehabilitation and social reintegration are also to be taken into account for under 18s.
  41. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  42. Bolivia | Edad de responsabilidad penal ordinaria es desde los 18 años – JORNADA
  43. Lowered in July 2014, from 16 to 14
  44. Absolute minimum for acts that constitute the following crimes: homicide, wounding resulting in death, rape, robbery, arson, explosion, planting of toxic substances and trafficking in dangerous drugs. The minimum age for other crimes are 16. In Hong Kong, the minimum age is 10
  45. and in Macau, 16.
  46. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  47. 14 for all crimes under the general provisions of the Criminal Code; special provisions may apply for some crimes up to the age 21.
  48. StGB § 19
  49. Minors between 14 and 18 years are sentenced by juvenile justice. An adult between 18 and 21 years may still be sentenced by juvenile justice if considered mentally immature.
  50. Juvenile judiciary system for offenders aged between 14 and 18; separate juvenile jails. Full criminal responsibility from age 18.
  51. Japanese Penal Code (Act No.45 of 1907), article 41 [۲]
  52. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  53. Offenders between 14 and 17 can be sentenced to a maximum of 8 years of imprisonment.
  54. Статья 20 (СТ 20 УК РФ). Возраст, с которого наступает уголовная ответственность | Уголовный кодекс РФ
  55. 16 by default, 14 years specifically for crimes as listed in Section 20 of the Criminal code, like murder, rape, robbery, extortion, kidnapping, motor vehicle theft, terror attack, stealing restricted substances like explosives or narcotics, aggravated anti-social behaviour, vandalism, false report of a terror attack.
  56. Ley Orgánica 5/2000, de 12 de enero, reguladora de la responsabilidad penal de los menores (ہسپانوی)
  57. Offenders aged 14 to 18 years qualify for reduction of sentence under section 18 of the Criminal Code. The death penalty and imprisonment without term cannot be applied to offenders aged 14 to 18 years.
  58. Criminal Code of the Republic of China
  59. Klaus podpisem stvrdil trestní odpovědnost i legální sex od 15 let – iDNES.cz
  60. Penal Code Archived 2021-05-19 at the وے بیک مشین 3:1 § (39/1889, as changed by 515/2003). Retrieved 10-31-2007.
  61. Penal Code Almindelig borgerlig Straffelov (Straffeloven) § 46 (changed of law 12 Jun 1987 nr. 51). Retrieved 19/7 – 2007.
  62. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  63. "PNoy signs law retaining minimum age of criminal liability". Yahoo News. October 8, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20181225114551/https://ph.news.yahoo.com/pnoy-signs-law-retaining-minimum-age-criminal-liability-072222982.html. 
  64. A person who is fifteen years old or younger at the time of the offense shall be exempt from criminal liability. However, the minor shall be subjected to an intervention program.
  65. A person who is older than fifteen but younger than eighteen years shall likewise be exempt from criminal liability and be subjected to an intervention program, unless he/she has acted with discernment.
  66. Discernment means the mental capacity to understand the difference between right and wrong and its consequences.
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  68. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  69. 17 to most crimes, but minors who are 15 or older can be judged as adults if so decided by the Supreme Court, what is done especially in relation to heinous crimes and when "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it, and especially when previously applied educational or corrective measures have proved ineffective." On the other hand, the Court may choose to apply juvenile measures for perpetrators between the ages 17 and 18, if "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it." Juvenile correctional proceedings responsibility from the age of 13. Juvenile educational and therapeutic proceedings responsibility for all persons below the age of 18 (including persons below 13 years of age).
  70. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  71. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  72. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  73. ۷۳.۰ ۷۳.۱ Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  74. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  75. Ministro de Justicia descarta rebaja en edad de responsabilidad penal adolescente | Emol.com
  76. Justiça | Responsabilidade criminal deve passar dos 16 para os 18 anos de idade) | PÚBLICO
  77. Federal Constitution (in Portuguese), Article 228. Retrieved 02-01-2011.
  78. Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (pt), Seção V. Retrieved 02-05-2013
  79. ۷۹.۰ ۷۹.۱ ۷۹.۲ Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  80. Folha de S.Paulo – Internacional – En – São Paulo – 93% of São Paulo Residents Want Age of Criminal Responsibility to Be Reduced – 17/04/2013
  81. http://www.telegrafo.com.ec/justicia/item/adolescentes-infractores-en-la-mira-de-codigo-penal.html
  82. Tienda de Entretenimiento
  83. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/agencia-efe/141027/uruguayans-reject-constitutional-reform-criminal-responsibility

سانچہ:فہرستاں قانون بلحاظ ملک