لسٹ نسل کشی بلحاظ اموات

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لسٹ نسل کشی بلحاظ اموات (انگریزی: List of genocides by death toll) وچ اوہ تمام اموات دے تخمینے شامل نيں جو نسل کشی د‏‏ی وجہ بنے۔ اس وچ دوسرے کئی طرح دے قتل عام جداں جنگی جرائم مثلاً سرخ دہشت، Japanese war crimes، جنگ تیس سالہ، اگے د‏‏ی جانب اک عظیم پھلانگ تے عظيم دہشت شامل نئيں ني‏‏‏‏ں۔

نسل کُشیاں د‏‏ی لسٹ[لکھو]

ایونٹ مقام سے(فرام) تک (ٹو) کم تو‏ں کم
تخمینہ
زیادہ تو‏ں زیادہ
تخمینہ
ہلاک ہونے والے گروپ دا تناسب
مرگ انبوہ[N ۱] جرمن مقبوضہ یورپ 1941 1945 ۵,۷۵۰,۰۰۰
[۲]
۶,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
[۳]
&10000000000000025000000Around 2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe.[۴]
Generalplan Ost[N ۱] ۴,۵۰۰,۰۰۰
[۵]
۱۳,۷۰۰,۰۰۰
[۶]
دوسری جنگ عظیم وچ ہلاکتاں The Third Reich planned to artificially decrease Baltic and Slavic populations by tens of millions, mostly by starvation, during and after the war.

Deaths include 1.3 million Jews, which are included in the deaths of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust,[۳] as well as the deaths of more than 3 million Soviet POWs.[۳]

Holodomor (Голодомор)[N ۲]
(Ukrainian genocide which is part of greater Soviet famine of 1932–33)
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union ( یوکرینی سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ) 1932 1933 ۱,۸۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۸][۱۹]
۷,۵۰۰,۰۰۰
[۲۰][۲۱]
&10000000000000012000000 نسل کشی of یوکرینی through artificial starvation by the Soviet regime.[۲۲][۲۳] Its characterization as a genocide is debated amongst historians.[۲۴][۲۵][۲۶]
Nazi genocide of Poles[N ۱] جرمن مقبوضہ یورپ 1939 1945 ۱,۸۰۰,۰۰۰
[۳]
۳,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
[۲۷]
دوسری جنگ عظیم وچ ہلاکتاں
Mongol conquest of Western Xia[N ۳] Mongol-dominated مغربی شیا 1205 1227 ۱,۵۰۰,۰۰۰ ۱,۵۰۰,۰۰۰ 1,500,000 killed in the نسل کشی after the conquest (Half[۳۳] the مغربی شیا[۳۴][۳۵][۳۶] was exterminated)
Cambodian genocide[N ۴] Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 ۱,۳۸۶,۷۳۴
[۴۵][۴۶]
۳,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
[۴۰][۴۷]
15–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[۴۸][۴۹] including:

99% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

Kazakh genocide during the Soviet famine of 1932–33[N ۵]
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union ( قازق خود مختار سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ) 1931 1933 ۱,۳۰۰,۰۰۰
[۵۰]
۱,۷۵۰,۰۰۰
[۵۱]
&10000000000000012000000Some historians conclude that 42% of the entire Kazakh population died in the famine.[۵۱] The two Soviet census show that the number of the Kazakhs in Kazakhstan dropped from 3,637,612 in 1926 to 2,181,520 in 1937.[۵۲]
Genocide in Bangladesh[N ۶] by Pakistan
مشرقی پاکستان (territories of present-day Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh) 1971 ۳۰۰,۰۰۰
[۵۴]
۳,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
[۵۵][۵۶]
&100000000000000030000002%[۵۷] to 4%[۵۸][۵۹][۶۰] Over 20% of بنگلہ دیش وچ ہندومت killed[۶۱]
(Using 1 to 3 million deaths figures)
ارمنی قتل عام Մեծ Եղեռն (Medz Yeghern, "Great Crime")[N ۷] سلطنت عثمانیہ
(territories of present-day ترکی, شام and عراق)
1915 1922 ۷۰۰,۰۰۰
[۶۲]
۱,۸۰۰,۰۰۰
[۶۳]
At least 50% of Armenians in Turkey killed[۶۲]
Indonesian genocide[N ۸] انڈونیشیا 1965 1966 ۵۰۰,۰۰۰
[۷۴][۷۰][۷۱]
۳,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
[۷۲][۷۳]
Some scholars now argue that the Indonesian massacres constitute genocide by the legal definition.[۷۵][۶۵][۶۹][۷۶][۷۷]
روانڈیائی نسل کشی[N ۹] روانڈا 1994 ۵۰۰,۰۰۰
[۷۸]
۱,۰۷۱,۰۰۰
[۷۹]
&1000000000000004000000070% of Tutsi in Rwanda killed and 30% of Twa in Rwanda killed
20% of Rwanda's total population killed
Greek genocide including the Pontic genocide[N ۱۰] سلطنت عثمانیہ
(territories of present-day ترکی)
1914 1922 ۵۰۰,۰۰۰
[۸۰]
۹۰۰,۰۰۰
[۸۱]
At least 25% of Greeks in Anatolia (Turkey) killed
Zunghar genocide 准噶尔灭族 in the Zunghar Khanate[N ۱۱] چنگ خاندان (Dzungaria) 1755 1758 ۴۸۰,۰۰۰
[۸۵]
۶۰۰,۰۰۰
[۸۵]
&1000000000000008000000080% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
چیرکسی نسل کشی[N ۱۲] چیرکاسیا, قفقاز 1864 1867 ۴۰۰,۰۰۰
[۹۸]
۱,۵۰۰,۰۰۰
.[۹۹]
&1000000000000004500000090% to 97% of total ادیگی قوم population perished or deported by the Russian forces.[۱۰۰][۱۰۱][۱۰۲]
Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian genocide[N ۱۳] Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day کرویئشا, بوسنیا تے ہرزیگووینا and سریم ضلع) 1941 1945 ۳۲۰,۰۰۰
[۱۰۴][۱۰۵]
۶۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۰۴][۱۰۵][۱۰۶]
&1000000000000001900000013% to 21% of the Serbian population within the NDH was killed.[۵۷]
Pacification of Algeria[N ۱۴] فرانسیسی الجزائر

1830

1871

۳۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۱۵]

۱,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۱۶]

&1000000000000001500000010%[۱۱۷] to 1/3[۱۱۸][۱۱۶] of Algeria's population died during the period
Genocide of Nestorian christians (کلیسیائے مشرق) by امیر تیمور Timurid-controlled مشرق وسطی

1370

1405

Error: Tens of thousands This is not a valid number. Please refer to the documentation at {{number table sorting}} for correct input.

Error: Hundreds of thousands This is not a valid number. Please refer to the documentation at {{number table sorting}} for correct input.

Tamerlane's rule was characterized by numerous massacres, including against other Muslims, but the only community he systematically targeted for elimination was the local Christians.
Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil[N ۱۵] برازیل

1900

1985

۲۳۵,۰۰۰
[۱۲۵]
۸۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۲۶]
&1000000000000008000000087 out of 230 Brazilian tribes went extinct during the period[۱۲۷]
Albigensian Crusade
(Cathar genocide)[N ۱۶]
لانگویڈوک, قرون وسطی وچ فرانس 1209 1229 ۲۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۳۰]
۱,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۳۱]
Assyrian genocide ܣܝܦܐ (Seyfo, "Sword")[N ۱۷] سلطنت عثمانیہ

territories of present-day ترکی, شام and عراق)

1915 1923 ۲۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۳۲]
۷۵۰,۰۰۰
[۱۳۳]
&10000000000000075000000
Irish genocide[N ۱۸] جزیرہ آئرلینڈ, انگلستان د‏‏ی دولت مشترکہ 1649 1653 ۲۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۳۷]
۶۱۸,۰۰۰
[۱۳۸]
&1000000000000003000000020–40% of the population of Ireland perished during the Cromwellian conquest[۱۳۷][۱۳۸]
Wu Hu genocide[N ۱۹] شمالی تے جنوبی چین 350 351 ۲۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۴۰]
۲۰۰,۰۰۰ &10000000000000025000000
Massacres of Hutus during the First Congo War[N ۲۰] زائر 1996 1997 200,000
[۱۴۳]
232,000
[۱۴۴]
حمیدیہ قتل عام[N ۲۱] سلطنت عثمانیہ 1894 1896 200,000
[۱۵۱]
300,000
[۱۵۱]
Genocide of the Tencteri and Usipetes[N ۲۲] Germania 55 BC ۱۵۰,۰۰۰
[۱۵۶]
۴۳۰,۰۰۰
[۱۵۷]
&10000000000000025000000
Battle of Carthage
(Punic genocide)
[N ۲۳]
قرطاجنہ (territories of present-day تونس شہر, تونس) 146 BC ۱۵۰,۰۰۰
[۱۶۳][۱۵۸]
۱۵۰,۰۰۰ Population reduced from 500,000 to 55,000. 150,000 died in the fall of Carthage.[۱۶۳]
Romani genocide[N ۲۴] جرمن مقبوضہ یورپ 1935[۱۶۸] 1945 ۱۳۰,۰۰۰
[۱۶۹]
۵۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۷۰][۱۷۱]
&1000000000000002500000025% of رومینی in Europe killed
Polish Operation of the NKVD (Polish genocide)[N ۲۵] سوویت اتحاد 1937 1938 ۱۱۱,۰۹۱
[۱۸۱]
۲۵۰,۰۰۰
[۱۸۲]
&1000000000000001300000022% of the Polish population of the USSR was "sentenced" by the operation (140,000 people)[۱۸۳]
چیچن تے انگوشےآں د‏‏ی جلاوطنی[N ۲۶]
(Soviet deportation of Chechens and other Vainakh populations)
سوویت اتحاد (شمالی قفقاز) 1944 1948 ۱۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۹۰]
۴۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۹۱]
&1000000000000003500000023.5% to almost 50% of total چیچن قوم population killed[۱۹۲]

[۱۸۴]سانچہ:Page needed[۱۸۵][۱۸۶][۱۹۳]

Genocide of Acholi and Lango people under عیدی امین[N ۲۷] یوگنڈا 1972 1978 100,000
[۱۹۴]
300,000
[۱۹۴]
Darfur genocide[N ۲۸] دارفور, سوڈان

2003

Present

۹۸,۰۰۰
[۱۹۷]
۵۰۰,۰۰۰
[۱۹۸]
Kurdish genocide[N ۲۹] Iraq 1977 1991 ۸۷,۵۰۰
[حوالہ درکار]
۳۸۸,۱۰۰
[حوالہ درکار]
&10000000000000008000000
East Timor genocide[N ۳۰] East Timor, انڈونیشیا 1975 1999 ۸۵,۳۲۰
[۲۱۸]
۱۹۶,۷۲۰
[۲۱۹]
&1000000000000002000000013% to 44% of مشرقی تیمور's total population killed
(See death toll of East Timor genocide)
Ikiza[N ۳۱] برونڈی 1972 ۸۰,۰۰۰
[۲۲۰][۲۲۱]
۳۰۰,۰۰۰
[۲۲۲]
&10000000000000005000000 As much as 10% to 15% of the Hutu population of Burundi killed[۲۲۲]
Libyan genocide[N ۳۲] اطالوی لیبیا 1923 1932 ۸۰,۰۰۰
[۲۲۷]
۱۲۵,۰۰۰
[۲۳۴]
۲۵% of برقہ population killed[۲۲۷]
Bambuti genocide[N ۳۳] شمالی کیوو, جمہوری جمہوریہ کانگو 2002 2003 ۶۰,۰۰۰
[۲۳۷][۲۳۵]
۷۰,۰۰۰
[۲۳۷]
&1000000000000004000000040% of the Eastern Congo's Pygmy population killed[N ۳۴]
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia[N ۳۵] German-occupied Poland 1943 1945 ۵۰,۰۰۰
[۲۴۰]
۳۰۰,۰۰۰
[۲۴۱][۲۴۲][۲۴۳][۲۴۴][۲۴۵]
4% to 20% of the pre-war (1931) Second Polish Republic's total Polish population of Voivodeships: stanisławowskie, tarnopolskie and wołyńskie[۲۴۶][۲۴۷] where killed.
Genocide of Isaaqs[N ۳۶] صومالی جمہوری جمہوریہ 1988 1991 ۵۰,۰۰۰
[۲۶۳][۲۵۳]
۲۰۰,۰۰۰
[۲۶۴]
&10000000000000004000000
Genocidal crimes against Bosniaks and Croats by the Chetniks[N ۳۷] Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day کرویئشا, بوسنیا تے ہرزیگووینا,and Sandžak) 1941 1945 ۴۷,۰۰۰
[۲۶۸]
۶۵,۰۰۰
[۲۶۸]
Tamil Genocide[N ۳۸] Tamil Eelam, سری لنکا 1956 2009 40,000[۲۷۲][۲۷۳] Error: 140000+ This is not a valid number. Please refer to the documentation at {{number table sorting}} for correct input.[۲۷۴] Between 10% and 35% of the Eelam Tamil population living in the de facto state of Tamil Eelam, controlled by the تامل ٹائیگرز.[۲۷۵]
کریمیائی تاتاریاں د‏‏ی جبری ملک بدری[N ۳۹] سوویت اتحاد ( کریمیائی خود مختار سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ) 1944 1948 ۳۴,۰۰۰
[۲۸۰]
۱۹۵,۴۷۱
[۲۸۱]
&10000000000000032000000The deportation and following exile reduced the کریمیائی تاتار population by between 18%[۲۸۰] and 46%.[۲۸۲]
Genocide in German South West Africa[N ۴۰] جرمن جنوب مغربی افریقہ 1904 1908 ۳۴,۰۰۰
[۲۸۳]
۱۱۰,۰۰۰
[۲۸۴][۲۸۵]
&1000000000000007000000060% (24,000 out of 40,000[۲۸۳]) to 81.25% (65,000[۲۸۶][۲۸۷] out of 80,000[۲۸۸]) of total Herero and 50%[۲۸۳] of Nama population killed.
Guatemalan genocide[N ۴۱] گواتیمالا 1962 1996 ۳۲,۶۳۲
[۲۹۳]
۱۶۶,۰۰۰
[۲۹۴]
&1000000000000004000000040% of the Maya population (24,000 people) of Guatemala's Ixil and Rabinal regions where killed[۵۷]
Jewish genocide during the Russian White Terror[N ۴۲] what is now یوکرین and روس 1918 1923 ۳۰,۰۰۰
[۲۹۶][۲۹۷]
۲۵۰,۰۰۰
[۲۹۵]
&10000000000000002000000
1993 Genocide of Burundian Tutsis[N ۳۱] برونڈی 1993 ۲۵,۰۰۰
[۲۹۹]
۵۰,۰۰۰
[۳۰۰]
Genocide of Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by Cossack insurgents[N ۴۳] Zaporozhian Cossacks insurgents on territory of پولینڈ-لتھوانیا دولت مشترکہ, یوکرین and بیلاروس 1648 1657 ۱۸,۰۰۰
[۳۰۲]
۱۰۰,۰۰۰
[۳۰۳][۳۰۴][۳۰۵][۳۰۶][۳۰۷]
&1000000000000005000000045–50% of the Jewish population of یوکرین was killed.[۳۰۲]
Latvian Operation of the NKVD
(Latvian genocide)[N ۴۴]
سوویت اتحاد 1937 1938 ۱۶,۵۷۳
[۳۰۸]
۱۶,۵۷۳
[۳۰۹]
1984ء دے سکھ مخالف فسادات & Operation Woodrose[N ۴۵] پنجاب، بھارت, بھارت 1984 1990 ۱۵,۳۵۰
[N ۴۶]
۲۹,۰۰۰
[N ۴۶]
Parsley massacre[N ۴۷] جمہوریہ ڈومینیکن 1937 12,168
[۳۲۹]
35,000
[۳۲۹]
California Genocide[N ۴۸] کیلیفورنیا, ریاست ہائے متحدہ

1846

1873

۹,۴۹۲–16,094
[۳۳۰][۳۳۱][۳۳۴]

۱۲۰,۰۰۰
[۳۳۱][۳۳۵]

&10000000000000080000000سرخ ہندی population in California declined by 80% during the period
Queensland Aboriginal genocide[N ۴۹] Queensland, آسٹریلیا

1840

1897

۱۰,۰۰۰
[۳۴۰]
۶۵,۱۸۰
[۳۴۱]
&100000000000000300000003.3% to over 50% of the aboriginal population was killed
(10,000[۳۴۰] to 65,180[۳۴۱] killed out of 125,600)سانچہ:Clarify
Rohingya genocide[N ۵۰] میانمار

2017

Present

۹,۰۰۰–13,700
[۳۴۸]

۴۳,۰۰۰
[۳۴۹]

Decossackization[N ۵۱] سوویت اتحاد

1917

1933

&10000000000010000000000thousands–10,000+
[۳۵۷]

۱,۰۰۰,۰۰۰
[۳۵۸]

&10000000000000004000000
Bosnian genocide[N ۵۲] بوسنیا تے ہرزیگووینا 1992 1995 ۸,۳۷۳
[۳۶۳]
۳۱,۱۰۷–۳۹,۱۹۹
[۳۶۴][۳۶۵]
&10000000000000003000000More than 3% of the بوسنیائی مسلم population of بوسنیا تے ہرزیگووینا perished during the بوسنیائی جنگ.[۳۶۶]
Persecution of the Igbo by the Nigerian army[N ۵۳] نائیجیریا 1966 1966 ۸,۰۰۰[۳۶۸] ۳۰,۰۰۰[۳۶۹]
The Sook Ching[N ۵۴] سنگاپور and British Malaya 1942 1942 ۵,۰۰۰
[حوالہ درکار]
۲۵,۰۰۰
[حوالہ درکار]
Chittagong Hill Tracts genocide[N ۵۵] Chittagong Hill Tracts, بنگلہ دیش 1977 1997 ۴,۴۰۶
[۳۷۹]
۱۳,۲۰۶
[۳۷۹]
&10000000000000002000000
1804 Haiti massacre[N ۵۶] ہیٹی 1804 1804 ۳,۰۰۰[۳۸۲] ۵,۰۰۰[۳۸۲]
Selk'nam genocide[N ۵۷] چلی, Tierra del Fuego Late 19th century Early 20th century ۲,۵۰۰
[۳۸۳]
۳,۹۰۰
[۳۸۴]
&1000000000000008400000084%
The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.)[۳۸۴][۳۸۵]
Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL[N ۵۸] داعش-controlled territory in northern عراق and شام 2014 2019 ۲,۱۰۰–4,400
[۳۸۸]
۱۰,۰۰۰
[۳۸۹]
See also: 2007 Yazidi communities bombings
Genocide of Shia muslims by ISIL, including نصیریہ and دروز داعش-controlled territory in northern عراق and شام and in افغانستان against the ہزارہ لوک people. 2003 (as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad and successor organizations including داعش) Present (as sleeper cells) Error: Several tens of thousands This is not a valid number. Please refer to the documentation at {{number table sorting}} for correct input. Error: 100000+ This is not a valid number. Please refer to the documentation at {{number table sorting}} for correct input.
The Gukurahundi[N ۵۹] زمبابوے 1983 1987 ۲,۰۰۰
[۳۹۱]
۳۰,۰۰۰
[۳۹۲]
1572 massacres of French Huguenots[N ۶۰] فرانس 1572 1572 2,000
[حوالہ درکار]
70,000
[۳۹۵]
Genocide of the Moriori[N ۶۱] جزائر چیٹم علاقہ, نیوزی لینڈ 1835 1863 ۱,۹۰۰
[۳۹۷][۳۹۸]
۱,۹۰۰ &1000000000000009500000095% of the Moriori population was eradicated by the invasion from Taranaki, a group of Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people from the Māori tribe.[۳۹۹][۴۰۰] All were enslaved and many were آدم خوری.[۴۰۱] They were not permitted to mix with their race.[۴۰۲] The Moriori language is now extinct.[۳۹۶][۴۰۳] There are no Moriori of unmixed ancestry left.[۳۹۸]
Conquest of the Desert and Mapuche decline[N ۶۲] پیٹاگونیا, modern day ارجنٹائن

1870s

1884

۱,۳۱۳
[۴۰۴]
۲۲۵,۰۰۰
[۴۰۵]
&10000000000000090000000Mapuche population reduced from 250,000 to 25,000.[۴۰۵]
Genocide of Christians by ISIL داعش-controlled territory in عراق, لیبیا and شام 2003 (as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad and successor organizations including داعش Present (elsewhere in the world, as ISIL has lost all territory) 1000+ Thousands More than 2,000 native Christians killed in the territories controlled by ISIL or with sleeper cells, including the 2010 Baghdad church massacre, 2015 kidnapping and beheading of Copts in Libya, the 2017 Palm Sunday church bombings, the 2019 Jolo Cathedral bombings and the سری لنکا دھماکے، 2019ء, among others. See also: Boko Haram insurgency
Destruction of the Aché[N ۶۳] پیراگوئے 1956 Early 1970s 900
[۴۰۷]
۴,۰۰۰
[۴۰۸]
85% of the Aché were wiped out (Today Aché are considered extinct).
Black War
(Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N ۶۴]
Van Diemen's Land, آسٹریلیا Mid 1820s 1832 ۴۰۰
[۴۱۱]
۱,۰۰۰
[۴۱۱]
Uyghur genocide
(Genocide of اویغور)
China دا جھنڈا سنکیانگ, چین 2014 Present ۳۸۶ ۱,۵۰۰,۰۰۰
Missing and murdered Indigenous women

(Widespread murders of Indigenous peoples in Canada)

Canada دا جھنڈا کینیڈا 1980s Present Error: 1200+ This is not a valid number. Please refer to the documentation at {{number table sorting}} for correct input.

نگارخانہ[لکھو]

Holodomor دے فاقہ زدہ شکار 
Cambodian genocide دے مقتولین د‏‏ی کھوپڑیاں 
ارمنی قتل عام دے شکار 
Greek genocide دے شکار 
Guatemalan genocide دے شکار 
Bosnian genocide د‏‏ی لاشاں 
Anfal genocide قبراں 
Dzungar genocideتصویراں 
Cathar genocide تصویراں 
Darfur genocide دے دوران ماں اپنے بیمار بچے دے نال 
2014ء وچ Isaaq genocide د‏‏ی قبراں / لاشاں 
Herero and Namaqua genocide دے دوران طبی تجربات دے لئی سر 
Libyan Genocide وچ اک مرکز 
میانمار وچ Rohingya genocide روہنگیا مسلما‏ن اک مہاجر کیمپ وچ ۔ 

ہور ویکھو[لکھو]

حوالے[لکھو]

  1. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے HoloList لئی۔
  2. Rosenfeld, Alvin H. (2008). "The Americanization of the Holocaust", American Jewish Identity Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-02464-3. 
  3. ۳.۰ ۳.۱ ۳.۲ ۳.۳ "Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution" (in en). https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/documenting-numbers-of-victims-of-the-holocaust-and-nazi-persecution. 
  4. Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2nd, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ISBN 978-0-8018-8358-3. 
  5. Zemskov, Viktor N. (2013). "The Extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War". http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2013/0559/analit01.php. 
  6. (1995) Human losses of the Soviet Union during the second World War. St. Petersburg: Russian Academy of Sciences. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0. 
  7. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے ONU2003 لئی۔
  8. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے EuroParliament لئی۔
  9. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے InfoUkes2009 لئی۔
  10. "Foreign Affairs: Ukrainian Famine (No. 680)". Journals of the Senate. 114: 2652–53. 30 October 2003. http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/work/journals/2003/jnlp_114.pdf. 
  11. Journals of the Senate No.72, 2nd Session, 37th Parliament. 19 June 2003. pp. 994–995. https://sencanada.ca/content/sen/Chamber/372/Journals/PDF/072jr_2003-06-19.pdf. Retrieved on ۲۴ جولائی ۲۰۱۶. 
  12. "Columbia declares Holodomor an act of genocide". Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union. 25 December 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20090219095656/http://helsinki.org.ua/en/index.php?id=1198597096. Retrieved on 26 March 2008. 
  13. "Aprueba resolución: Congreso se solidariza con pueblo Ucraniano" (in es). National Congress of Ecuador. 30 October 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071102145045/http://www.congreso.gov.ec/noticias/contenido.aspx?codigo_bol=5542&sitio=noticias. Retrieved on 31 October 2007. 
  14. ۱۴.۰ ۱۴.۱ ۱۴.۲ ۱۴.۳ ۱۴.۴ ۱۴.۵ ۱۴.۶ ۱۴.۷ ۱۴.۸ "International Recognition of the Holodomor". Holodomoreducation.org. 28 November 2006. http://www.holodomoreducation.org/news.php/news/4. Retrieved on 24 July 2016. 
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  22. Brent Bezo; Stefania Maggi (2015). "Living in "survival mode:" Intergenerational transmission of trauma from the Holodomor genocide of 1932–1933 in Ukraine". Social Science & Medicine 134: 87–94. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.009. PMID 25931287. 
  23. Raphael Lemkin Papers, The New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation, Raphael Lemkin ZL-273. Reel 3. Published in L.Y. Luciuk (ed), Holodomor: Reflections on the Great Famine of 1932–1933 in Soviet Ukraine (Kingston: The Kashtan Press, 2008). Available online Archived 2012-03-02 at the وے بیک مشین
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  26. Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2014). "A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism". History of the Present 4 (2): 115–142. doi:10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/kristenghodsee/files/history_of_the_present_galleys.pdf. 
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  60. 1 in 25 is equal to 4% of Bangladesh's total population killed
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  93. "Circassia: Adygs Ask European Parliament to Recognize Genocide". unpo.org. http://www.unpo.org/article.php?id=5634. Retrieved on 2018-04-16. 
  94. ۹۴.۰ ۹۴.۱ "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". نیو یارک ٹائمز. May 21, 2011. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/21/world/europe/21georgia.html. 
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  99. Shenfield, Stephen D. (1999). in Levine, Mark D: The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide, 154. “The number who died in the Circassian catastrophe of the 1860s could hardly, therefore, be less than one million, and may well have been closer to one-and-a-half million” 
  100. "145th Anniversary of the Circassian Genocide and the Sochi Olympics Issue". Reuters. May 22, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20120702174523/https://www.reuters.com/article/2009/05/22/idUS104971%2B22-May-2009%2BPRN20090522. Retrieved on ۲۸ نومبر ۲۰۰۹. 
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  119. "VII", Federal Constitution of Brazil Article 231. 
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  125. Rudolph Rummel estimates the following Indian deaths:سانچہ:Where
    • Under republic (1900–30): 50,000 democides
    • Under Vargas (1930–45): 60,000
    • Under Dutra/Vargas (1945–64): 50,000
    • Under military (1964–85): 75,000
    TOTAL: 235,000
  126. Robert Hitchcock (1997). in Samuel Totten: Century of Genocide. ISBN 0-415-99085-8. “Indian population of Brazil declined from 1.0M to 0.2M between 1900 and 1957, a net loss of 800,000” 
  127. Ribeiro, Darcy (196). in Janice Hopper: Indigenous Cultures and Languages in Brazil. “87 Indian tribes in Brazil went extinct between 1900 and 1957 (Out of an original 230)” 
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    • Tim Pat Coogan (5 January 2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. Palgrave Macmillan, 6. ISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. “The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide.” 
    • Peter Berresford Ellis (9 February 2007). Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-05312-6.  "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • Levene 2005 "[The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state."
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  157. ۱۵۷.۰ ۱۵۷.۱ Kiernan, Ben (2007). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3. 
  158. ۱۵۸.۰ ۱۵۸.۱ Kiernan, Ben (2004-08-01). "The First Genocide: Carthage, 146 BC" (in en). Diogenes 51 (3): 27–39. doi:10.1177/0392192104043648. ISSN 0392-1921. https://semanticscholar.org/paper/cd2f91b9f91c690ed2adc5e071d8313e2ead8a6c. 
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  174. Prof. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2011-01-15). Nieopłakane ludobójstwo (Genocide Not Mourned). Rzeczpospolita. http://www.rp.pl/artykul/594183.html. Retrieved on ۲۸ اپریل ۲۰۱۱. 
  175. Franciszek Tyszka. "Tomasz Sommer: Ludobójstwo Polaków z lat 1937–38 to zbrodnia większa niż Katyń (Genocide of Poles in the years 1937–38, a Crime Greater than Katyn)". Super Express. http://m.se.pl/wydarzenia/opinie/zbrodnia-wieksza-niz-katyn_157172.html. Retrieved on April 28, 2011. 
  176. "Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (To Execute the Poles. Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union)". Historyton. https://web.archive.org/web/20111003143755/http://historyton.pl/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=11729. Retrieved on April 28, 2011. 
  177. Andrzej Macura, Polska Agencja Prasowa (2010-06-24). "Publikacja na temat eksterminacji Polaków w ZSRR w latach 30 (Publication on the Subject of Extermination of Poles in the Soviet Union during the 1930s)". Portal Wiara.pl. http://info.wiara.pl/doc/578542.Publikacja-na-temat-eksterminacji-Polakow-w-ZSRR-w-latach-30. Retrieved on April 28, 2011. 
  178. Prof Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski (22 March 2011). "Rozkaz N.K.W.D.: No. 00485 z dnia 11-VIII-1937, a Polacy". Polish Club Online. http://www.polishclub.org/2011/03/22/prof-iwo-cyprian-pogonowski-rozkaz-n-k-w-d-no-00485-z-dnia-11-viii-1937-a-polacy. Retrieved on April 28, 2011. "See also, Tomasz Sommer: Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union), article published by The Polish Review vol. LV, No. 4, 2010." 
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  180. "Konferencja "Rozstrzelać Polaków – Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim"" (in pl). Instytut Globalizacji oraz Press Club Polska in cooperation with Memorial Society. http://globalizacja.org/node/364. Retrieved on 2011-04-28. 
  181. Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 217. ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8. 
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    Almost all victims of the NKVD shootings were men, wrote Michał Jasiński, most with families. Their wives and children were dealt with by the NKVD Order No. 00486. The women were generally sentenced to deportation to Kazakhstan for an average of 5 to 10 years. Orphaned children without relatives willing to take them were put in orphanages to be brought up as Soviet, with no knowledge of their origins. All possessions of the accused were confiscated. The parents of the executed men – as well as their in-laws – were left with nothing to live on, which usually sealed their fate as well. Statistical extrapolation, wrote Jasiński, increases the number of Polish victims in 1937–1938 to around 200–250,000 depending on size of their families.
  183. Michael Ellman, Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited پی ڈی ایف file page 686
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  198. Reeves, Eric (2006-04-28). Quantifying Genocide in Darfur. 
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  200. "Historic Debate Secures Parliamentary Recognition of the Kurdish Genocide". Huffingtonpost.co.uk. https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/gary-kent/parliamentary-recognition-of-the-kurdish-genocide_b_2789300.html. Retrieved on 31 August 2013. 
  201. "South Korea recognizes Kurdish genocide". 13 June 2013. https://archive.today/20150426233519/http://www.peyamner.com/english/PNAnews.aspx?ID=314434. Retrieved on ۲۶ اپریل ۲۰۱۵. 
  202. "Genocide Against the Kurds in Iraq: Iraq and International Recognition Over Time". uk.gov.krd. http://uk.gov.krd/genocide/pages/page.aspx?lngnr=12&smap=140000&pnr=42. Retrieved on ۲۳ مئی ۲۰۱۷. 
  203. ۲۰۳.۰ ۲۰۳.۱ Rummel, Rudolph J.. "Chapter 14 The Horde of Centi-kilo Murderers Estimates, Calculations, and Sources". Rows 1313, 1314. https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB14.1C.GIF. 
  204. ۲۰۴.۰ ۲۰۴.۱ Routine calculations do not count as original research, provided there is consensus among editors that the result of the calculation is obvious, correct, and a meaningful reflection of the sources. Basic arithmetic, such as adding numbers, converting units, or calculating a person's age are some examples of routine calculations. See also Category:Conversion templates.
    https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB14.1C.GIF row 1313 and 1314
    1,000,000 and 10,000 to 2,000,000 and 100,000 Kurds were displaced and killed respectively between 1963 and 1987; 250,000 of them in 1977 and 1978. If deaths are proportional to the displacement then 2,500 to 12,500 Kurds would have died during this period depending on the scale of overall displacement and deaths used.
  205. (2016-08-16) Dictators and their Secret Police: Coercive Institutions and State Violence, 289. ISBN 978-1-316-71256-6. 
  206. (2010) Tareekh Al-Kurd Al-Faylyoon, 485, 499–501. 
  207. (2003) Untold stories of more than 4000 women raped killed and tortured in Iraq, the country of mass graves, 489–492. 
  208. "The Tragedy of the Missing Barzanis". https://web.archive.org/web/20191119065607/https://kurdistanmemoryprogramme.com/the-tragedy-of-the-missing-barzanis/. 
  209. Jones, Dave. "The Crimes of Saddam Hussein
    1983 The Missing Barzanis"
    . PBS. https://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/iraq501/events_barzanis.html.
     
  210. ۲۱۰.۰ ۲۱۰.۱ GENOCIDE IN IRAQ Human Rights Watch, 1993
  211. "The Crimes of Saddam Hussein – 1988 The Anfal Campaign". PBS Frontline. January 24, 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060206034420/https://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/iraq501/events_anfal.html. Retrieved on November 15, 2019. 
  212. Zenko, Micah. "Remembering the Iraqi Uprising Twenty-Five Years Ago". https://www.cfr.org/blog/remembering-iraqi-uprising-twenty-five-years-ago. 
  213. ۲۱۳.۰ ۲۱۳.۱ 1,000 deaths per day in April, May and June along Turkish border a - "Iraqi Deaths from the Gulf War as of April 1992," Greenpeace, Washington, D.C. See also "Aftermath of War: The Persian Gulf War Refugee Crisis," Staff Report to the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs, May 20, 1991. The figure of nearly 1,000 deaths per day is also given in "Kurdistan in the Time of Saddam Hussein," Staff Report to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, November 1991, p.14. "hundreds" (100 to 900?) died per day along Iranian border b - Kurdish Refugees Straggle Into Iran, Followed By Tragedy, Associated Press, Apr 13, 1991 1,100 to 1,900 (a + b) deaths per day from at least April 13th (b) up to between May 1st and May 31st (a ); which suggests 44 to 74 days: 1,100(44)= 48,400 1,900(74)= 140,600 Routine calculations Routine calculations do not count as original research, provided there is consensus among editors that the result of the calculation is obvious, correct, and a meaningful reflection of the sources. Basic arithmetic, such as adding numbers, converting units, or calculating a person's age are some examples of routine calculations. See also Category:Conversion templates.
  214. Payaslian, Simon. "20th Century Genocides". Oxford bibliographies. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199743292/obo-9780199743292-0105.xml. 
  215. "Genocide Studies Program: East Timor". http://gsp.yale.edu/case-studies/east-timor. 
  216. "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report Chega!". http://www.cavr-timorleste.org/updateFiles/english/CONFLICT-RELATED%20DEATHS.pdf. 
  217. "Chega! The CAVR Report". https://web.archive.org/web/20120513220045/http://www.cavr-timorleste.org/en/Brief.htm. 
  218. Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.
    *This estimates comes from taking the minimum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the minimum starved.
    "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report". http://www.cavr-timorleste.org/updateFiles/english/CONFLICT-RELATED%20DEATHS.pdf. 
    "The CAVR Report". http://www.cavr-timorleste.org/en/Brief.htm. 
  219. Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings:*This estimates comes from taking the maximum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the maximum starved.
    "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report". cavr-timorleste.org. http://www.cavr-timorleste.org/en/Brief.htm. Retrieved on April 16, 2018. 
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  226. Totten, Samuel (2008). Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. ABC-CLIO, 259. ISBN 978-0-313-34642-2. 
  227. ۲۲۷.۰ ۲۲۷.۱ ۲۲۷.۲ ۲۲۷.۳ Duggan, Christopher (2007). The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 497. 
  228. Cooper, Tom (January 19, 2015). Libyan Air Wars: Part 1: 1973–1985. Helion and Company, 5. ISBN 978-1-910777-51-0. 
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  230. Stewart, C.C. (1986). "Islam", The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 7: c. 1905 – c. 1940. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. 
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  235. ۲۳۵.۰ ۲۳۵.۱ Penketh, Anne (2004-07-07). "Extermination of the pygmies". The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/extermination-of-the-pygmies-552332.html. Retrieved on ۲۱ دسمبر ۲۰۱۸. 
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  237. ۲۳۷.۰ ۲۳۷.۱ ۲۳۷.۲ "Between October 2002 and January 2003, two the rebel groups, the MLC and RCD-N in the East of the Congo launched a premeditated, systematic genocide against the local tribes and Pygmies nicknamed operation "Effacer le Tableau" ("erase the board"). During their offensive against the civilian population of the Ituri region, the rebel groups left more than 60,000 dead and over 100,000 displaced. The rebels even engaged in slavery and cannibalism. Human Rights Reports state that this was due to the fact that rebel groups, often far away from their bases of supply and desperate for food, enslaved the Pygmies on captured farms to grow provisions for their militias or when times get really tough simply slaughter them like animals and devour their flesh which some believe gives them magical powers. 11. Fatality Level of Dispute (military and civilian fatalities): 70,000 estimated" see: Raja Seshadri (7 November 2005). "Pygmies in the Congo Basin and Conflict". Case Study 163. The Inventory of Conflict & Environment, American University. http://www1.american.edu/ted/ice/pygmy.htm. Retrieved on 21 July 2012. 
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  248. Ingiriis, Mohamed Haji (2016-07-02). ""We Swallowed the State as the State Swallowed Us": The Genesis, Genealogies, and Geographies of Genocides in Somalia". African Security 9 (3): 237–58. doi:10.1080/19392206.2016.1208475. ISSN 1939-2206. 
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  251. Peifer, Douglas C. (2009-05-01). Stopping Mass Killings in Africa: Genocide, Airpower, and Intervention. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4379-1281-4. 
  252. Straus, Scott (2015-03-24). Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-5567-4. 
  253. ۲۵۳.۰ ۲۵۳.۱ Jones, Adam (2017-01-22). Genocide, war crimes and the West: history and complicity. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-84277-191-4. 
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  271. Redžić, Enver (2005). Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Second World War. New York: Tylor and Francis, 84. ISBN 978-0-7146-5625-0. 
  272. "Sri Lanka’s dead and missing: the need for an accounting" (in en). 2012-02-27. https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-asia/sri-lanka/sri-lankas-dead-and-missing-need-accounting. 
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  280. ۲۸۰.۰ ۲۸۰.۱ Buckley, Cynthia J. (2008). Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 207. ISBN 978-0-8018-9075-8. 
  281. Allworth, Edward (1998). The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland: Studies and Documents. Durham: Duke University Press, 6. ISBN 978-0-8223-1994-8. OCLC 610947243. 
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  287. "German minister says sorry for genocide in Namibia". The Guardian. August 16, 2004. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/aug/16/germany.andrewmeldrum. Retrieved on ۲۰ فروری ۲۰۱۶. 
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  296. ۲۹۶.۰ ۲۹۶.۱ "History and Culture of Jews in Ukraine ("«Нариси з історії та культури євреїв України»)«Дух і літера» publ., Kyiv, 2008, с. 128 – 135
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  298. R. Pipes. A Concise History of the Russian Revolution. Vintage Books. 1996. p. 262.
  299. Totten, Samuel (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Psychology Press, 331. ISBN 978-0-415-94430-4. 
  300. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے Totten2004 لئی۔
  301. Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources. Information Age Publishing, 25. ISBN 1-59311-074-X. “A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 …”  .
  302. ۳۰۲.۰ ۳۰۲.۱ Stampfer, Shaul (2003). "What Actually Happened to the Jews of Ukraine in 1648?". Jewish History 17 (2): 165–178. doi:10.1023/A:1022308423637. 
  303. Edward H. Flannery (2004). The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism. Paulist Press, 158. ISBN 0-8091-4324-0. “footnote 33, p. 327” 
  304. Max I. Dimont (2004). Jews, God, and History. Signet Classic, 247. ISBN 0-451-52940-5. 
  305. Martin Gilbert (1976). Jewish History Atlas, 530. ISBN 3-11-013715-1. “cited in Herbert Arthur Strauss. Hostages of modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism 1870–1933/39, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, p. 1013” 
  306. Other 1960s–1980s estimates of Jews killed:
    • Hannah Vogt (1967). "The Jews: A Chronicle for Christian Conscience". Association Press: p. 72. "In 1648, under the leadership of Chmielnicki, they ravaged the land with fire and sword. Their hatred of the Jews was boundless and they rarely attempted to persuade the unfortunate to convert. These persecutions were characterized by hitherto-unknown atrocities. Children were torn apart or thrown into the fire before the eyes of their mothers, women were burned alive, men were skinned and mutilated. People must have thought hell had let loose all the tormenting monsters that medieval painters had portrayed dragging the condemned to eternal punishment. The roads were choked with thousands of refugees trying to escape the murderous hordes. The famous rabbis of the Talmud schools died by the hundreds as martyrs for their faith. The total number of the dead was estimated at about one hundred thousand." 
    • Richard L. Rubenstein (1974). Power Struggle: An Autobiographical Confession. Scribner, 95. “In their revolt, the Ukrainians slaughtered over one hundred thousand Jews.” 
    • Chaim Bermant (1978). The Jews. Redwood Burn, 12. ISBN 0-297-77419-0. “Thus, when in 1648, the Ukrainians under Chmielnicki rose against Polish dominion the Jews were to bear the main brunt of their fury. Within eighteen months over three hundred Jewish townships were destroyed and over one hundred thousand Jews—about a fifth of Polish Jewry—perished. It was the greatest calamity the Jews were to experience until the rise of Hitler.” 
    • David Bamberger (1978). My People: Abba Eban's History of the Jews. Behrman House, 184–185. ISBN 0-87441-263-3. “Under the leadership of the barbaric Bogdan Chmielnitski, they exploded in a revolt of terrible violence in which their anger at their Polish lords also turned against Jewish 'infidels,' some of whom had been used by the Poles as tax collectors... In the ten years between 1648 and 1658 no fewer than 100,000 Jews were killed” 
    • Gertrude Hirschler (1988). Ashkenaz: The German Jewish Heritage, 64. “… set off bloody massacres, led by Bogdan Chmielnicki (1593–1657), in which nearly 300,000 Eastern European Jews were killed or uprooted” 
  307. Sources estimating 100,000 Jews killed:
    • "Judaism Timeline 1618–1770". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/religion/judaism/timeline.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. "Bogdan Chmelnitzki leads Cossack uprising against Polish rule; 100,000 Jews are killed and hundreds of Jewish communities are destroyed." 
    • Oscar Reiss (2004). The Jews in Colonial America. McFarland & Company, 98–99. ISBN 0-7864-1730-7. “The peasants of Ukraine rose up in 1648 under a petty aristocrat Bogdan Chmielnicki. … It is estimated that 100,000 Jews were massacred and 300 of their communities destroyed” 
    • Manus I. Midlarsky (2005). The Killing Trap: genocide in the twentieth century. Cambridge University Press, 352. ISBN 0-521-81545-2. “Moreover, Poles must have been keenly aware of the massacre of Jews in 1768 and even more so as the result of the much more widespread massacres (approximately 100,000 dead) of the earlier Chmielnicki pogroms during the preceding century” 
    • Martin Gilbert (1999). Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past. Columbia University Press, 219. ISBN 0-231-10965-2. “… as many as 100,000 Jews were murdered throughout the Ukraine by Bogdan Chmielnicki's Cossack soldiers on the rampage” 
    • Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources. Information Age Publishing, 25. ISBN 1-59311-074-X. “A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 …” 
    • Cara Camcastle (2005). The More Moderate Side of Joseph De Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political Economy. McGill-Queen's Press, 26. ISBN 0-7735-2976-4. “In response to Poland having taken control of much of the Ukraine in the early seventeenth century, Ukrainian peasants mobilized as groups of cavalry, and these "cossacks" in the Chmielnicki uprising of 1648 killed an estimated 100,000 Jews” 
    • Colin Martin Tatz (2003). With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide. Verso, 146. ISBN 1-85984-550-9. “Is there not a difference in nature between Hitler's extermination of three million Polish Jews between 1939 and 1945 because he wanted every Jew dead and the mass murder 1648–49 of 100,000 Polish Jews by General Bogdan Chmielnicki because he wanted to end Polish rule in the Ukraine and was prepared to use Cossack terrorism to kill Jews in the process?” 
    • Mosheh Weiss (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish People. Rowman & Littlefield, 193. ISBN 0-7425-4402-8. “… massacring an estimated one hundred thousand Jews as the Ukrainian Bogdan Chmielnicki had done nearly three centuries earlier.” 
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  309. Werth, Nicolas (2010-05-20). "The NKVD Mass Secret National Operations (August 1937 – November 1938)" (PDF). Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. MassViolence.org. pp. 4 of 10. ISSN 1961-9898. Retrieved 2017-12-11. 
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  313. PTI (22 April 2015). "California assembly describes 1984 riots as 'genocide'". The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/California-assembly-describes-1984-riots-as-genocide/articleshow/47011681.cms. Retrieved on ۱۰ مارچ ۲۰۱۹. 
  314. "Bill Text". ca.gov. https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billTextClient.xhtml;jsessionid=f2b94bb85b29eb4c706d647133cf?bill_id=201520160ACR34. 
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