پلاچاج

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پلاچاج قرون وسطی تو‏ں لے ک‏ے انیہويں صدی تک اک عام ودھ از قانون نظام سی جو بہ طور خاص شمالی امریک‏‏ا دے فرانسیسی تے ہسپانوی استعماریت پسنداں وچ دیکھیا گیا (جس وچ کیریبین جزیرے وی شامل سن )۔ اس طریقے تو‏ں نسلی یورپی مرد غیریورپی (افریقی، اصلی امریکی باشندے یا ملی جلی نسل دے لوک) عورتاں دے نال عرف عام د‏‏ی شادی جداں تعلقات قائم کر سکدا سی۔ ایہ اصطلاح فرانسیسی لفظ placer تو‏ں بندی اے، جس تو‏ں مراد کی جگہ اُتے رکھنا۔ انہاں عورتاں نو‏‏ں کدی وی بیویاں دے طور اُتے تسلیم نئيں کیتا گیا مگر انہاں نو‏ں پلاسی (placées) کہیا جاندا تھا؛ انہاں دے تعلقات نو‏‏ں رنگ دے آزاد لوکاں د‏‏ی جانب تو‏ں کبھے ہتھ د‏‏ی شادی دے طور اُتے تسلیم کیتا جاندا سی جس دے لئی فرانسیسی اصطلاح mariages de la main gauche مستعمل سی۔ انہاں رشتاں تے تعلقات نو‏‏ں رسمی طور اُتے قبولیت معاہداں تے سمجھوتاں دے ذریعے د‏‏ی دتی گئی جس وچ جائداد دا تصفیہ عورتاں تے انہاں دے بچےآں دے حق وچ کیہ جاندا سی۔ کچھ معاملےآں وچ غلامی تو‏ں آزادی وی ممکن سی۔ ایہ نظام کافی حد فرانسیسی تے ہسپانوی دوراں وچ پھیلا، جس وچ سب تو‏ں زیادہ رواج 1769ء تو‏ں 1803ء دے وچکار دیکھیا گیا۔

حوالے[لکھو]

  1. Chained to the Rock of Adversity, To Be Free, Black & Female in the Old South, edited by Virginia Meacham Gould, University of Georgia Press, 1998
  2. Katy F. Morlas, "La Madame et la Mademoiselle," graduate thesis in history, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 2003
  3. Joan M. Martin, Placage and the Louisiana Gens de Couleur Libre, in Creole, edited by Sybil Kein, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 2000.
  4. Monique Guillory, "Under One Roof: The Sins and Sanctity of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls", in Race Consciousness, edited by Judith Jackson Fossett and Jeffrey A. Tucker, New York University Press, 1997.
  5. Mills, Elizabeth Shown. "Marie Thérèse Coincoin (1742–1816): Slave, Slave Owner, and Paradox", Chapter 1 in Janet Allred and Judy Gentry, ed., Louisiana Women: Their Lives and Times (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 2009), chap. 1, pages 10–29
  6. Mills, Gary B. The Forgotten People: Cane River's Creoles of Color. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.
  7. Mills, Elizabeth Shown. "Which Marie Louise is 'Mariotte'? Sorting Slaves with Common Names." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 94 (September 2006): 183–204; archived online at Historic Pathways.
  8. Violet Harrington Bryan, "Marcus Christian's Treatment of Les Gens de Couleur Libre", in Creole, edited by Sybil Kein, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 2000.
  9. Caryn Cosse Bell, "The Real Marie Laveau", review of Voodoo Queen: The Spirited Lives of Marie Laveau, by Martha Ward, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, 2004.
  10. Monique Guillory, "Under One Roof: The Sins and Sanctity of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls", 68-9
  11. Jorge Canizares-Esguerra, Matt D. Childs, James Sidbury: The Black Urban Atlantic in the Age of the Slave Trade
  12. Trevor Burnard, John Garrigus: The Plantation Machine: Atlantic Capitalism in French Saint-Domingue
  13. Stewart R. King: Blue Coat Or Powdered Wig: Free People of Color in Pre-revolutionary Saint Domingue
  14. Monique Guillory, "Under One Roof: The Sins and Sanctity of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls", 80
  15. Monique Guillory, "Under One Roof: The Sins and Sanctity of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls", 81
  16. Monique Guillory, "Under One Roof: The Sins and Sanctity of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls", 82
  17. "Mixed Race Studies » quadroon balls". www.mixedracestudies.org. Retrieved 22 October 2017.# Melle, Stacy Parker Le (4 September 2013). "Quadroons for Beginners: Discussing the Suppressed and Sexualized History of Free Women of Color with Author Emily Clark". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.

ہور پڑھو[لکھو]

حالیہ کتاباں[لکھو]

  • The Free People of Color of New Orleans, An Introduction, by Mary Gehman and Lloyd Dennis, Margaret Media, Inc., 1994.
  • Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century, by Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Louisiana State University Press, 1995.
  • Creole New Orleans, Race and Americanization, by Arnold R. Hirsch and Joseph Logsdon, Louisiana State University Press, 1992.
  • Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, by Kimberly S. Hanger.
  • Afristocracy: Free Women of Color and the Politics of Race, Class, and Culture, by Angela Johnson-Fisher, Verlag, 2008.
  • The Strange History of the American Quadroon − Free Women of Color in the Revolutionary Atlantic World, by Emily Clark, The University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

معاصر نگارشات[لکھو]

  • Travels by His Highness Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach through North America in the years 1825 and 1826, by Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach; William Jeronimus and C.J. Jeronimus, University Press of America, 2001. (The Duke relates his visits to quadroon balls as a tourist in New Orleans.)
  • Voyage to Louisiana, (An abridged translation from the original French by Stuart O. Landry) by C.C. Robin, Pelican Publishing Co., 1966. (Robin visited Louisiana just after its purchase by the Americans and resided there for two years.)

باہرلے جوڑ[لکھو]