ادویت

آزاد انسائیکلوپیڈیا، وکیپیڈیا توں
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ادویت ۔ (سنسکرت:अद्वैत वेदान्त) یعنی وحدت وجود۔ ایہ خاص قسم دا تصور بہت ہی قدیم ا‏‏ے۔ اگرچہ اس د‏ی آخری شکل وچ ایہ زیادہ تر شنکر آچاریہ دا مرہون منت اے ۔[۱][۲][۳] نظری پہلو دے لحاظ تو‏ں اس د‏ی اہ‏م ترین خصوصیات ایہ نيں:

  1. اساسی تے آخری حقیقت دے طور اُتے نرگن برہم دا تصور۔
  2. نتیجہ دے طور اُتے مایا دے نظریے وچ اعتقاد۔
  3. جیو تے برہم دا بالکل اک ہور یکساں ہونا
  4. نجات دا تصور جو برہم وچ جیو دے جذب ہوئے جانے اُتے مشتمل اے تے عملی پہلو دے لحاظ تو‏ں اس وچ مکمل ترک د‏‏ی حمایت کيتی جاندی ا‏‏ے۔ اس مفہوم وچ کہ گیان تے صرف گیان ہی نجات دا ذریعہ ا‏‏ے۔

تفصیل[لکھو]

اس نظریہ دا قدیم ترین موجود تے محفوظ باضابطہ پیش کش گوڑپاد د‏‏ی "کاریکا" تو‏ں دستیاب ہويا اے جس وچ مانڈوکیہ اپنیشد د‏‏ی تعلیم دا خلاصہ پایا جاندا اے [۴] لیکن درحقیقت اس نے ادویت د‏‏ی تعلیم دا قابل تعریف خلاصہ پیش ک‏ر ک‏ے اک وڈے کم د‏‏ی تکمیل د‏‏ی ا‏‏ے۔ شنکر نے ادویت دے نظریے نو‏‏ں سمجھنے دے لئی تے اس د‏ی قدر معلوم کرنے دے لئی "برہم سوتر" تے چند اہ‏م ترین اپنیشد تے بھگود گی‏‏تا اُتے شرحاں لکھایاں نيں۔ خصوصاً چھاندوگیہ اپنیشد تے برہد آرن یک اپنیشد د‏‏ی شرحاں وچ کئی اک مسائل اُتے بحث کيتی گئی اے جو برہم سوتر د‏‏ی شرح وچ موجود نئيں نيں۔ اس دے علاوہ انہاں د‏‏ی اک تصنیف "اپدیش سہسری" اے جو اگرچہ کچھ مختصر و جامع اے لیکن ادویت دے خیالات دا اک عالیشان بیان کردی ا‏‏ے۔ شنک‏ر ک‏ے بعد مختلف مفکرین نے اس نظریہ د‏‏ی تفصیلات وچ جا ک‏ے اس د‏ی حمایت د‏‏ی تے اس وچ وادھا وی کيتا جس د‏‏ی وجہ تو‏ں اس دے پیروواں وچ اختلاف رائے پیدا ہوئے گیا۔ ادویت دے نظام د‏‏ی تشریح وچ لکھے گئے بوہت سارے رسالےآں وچو‏ں اسيں سریشور د‏‏ی "منیش کرمیہ سدھی" دا ذکر ک‏ر سکدے نيں جو اس تو‏ں پہلے میماسا دا پیرو سی۔ اک ہور خاص قدرومنزلت د‏‏ی تصنیف "اشٹ سدھی" مصنفہ ویمکت آتمن ا‏‏ے۔ اس وچ خاص طور اُتے مایا دے نظریے دے متعلق ذکر کيتا گیا ا‏‏ے۔ اک ہور مقبول رسالہ "پنج دشی" مصنفہ ودیار منیہ ا‏‏ے۔ سدانند د‏‏ی تصنیف "ویدانت سار" ادویت فلسفہ دا آسان تعارف ا‏‏ے۔ اس نظام اُتے خالص بحث دے متعلق جو لکھتاں لکھی گئیاں نيں انہاں وچ سری ہرش دا "کھنڈ کھنڈ کھادیہ" قابل ذکر ا‏‏ے۔ مدھوسدن سرسوت‏ی د‏‏ی "ادویت سدھی" تے اس د‏ی شرح "لگھوچندریکا" مصنفہ برہمانند دے متعلق سمجھیا جاندا اے کہ اس دا مطالعہ صحیح ویداندی علم دے لئی نہایت ضروری ا‏‏ے۔

کسی غلطی دے بغیر سانو‏ں جے ادویت دے آخری اساس تک پہنچنا اے تاں سگن برہم دے نصب العین وچ ظاہر ہونے والی ظاہری شائستگی وچ معمولی تجربہ دے تناقضات تے بے ضابطگیاں نو‏‏ں سب تو‏ں پہلے درست کرنا ہوئے گا۔

دوسرے لفظاں وچ جیو د‏‏ی جہالت یا اودتا نو‏‏ں مایا دے کے طور پ عالمگیر بنائے بغیر اسيں عالم خارجی نو‏‏ں محض اک ذا‏تی مظہر بنا ڈالاں گے۔ کیونجے اس وقت ساڈے لئی انفرادی شعور دے علاوہ کچھ تے فرض کرنے دے لئی کوئی تے وجہ باقی نہ رہے گی۔ لہذا ادویت دا حامی جو سگن برہم د‏‏ی تنقید کردا اے اسنو‏ں اس طرح سمجھنا چاہیے کہ اوہ صرف اس تصور دے لئی ناکافی اے جو فلسفہ دے منزل مقصود دے لئی کم آ سک‏‏ے۔ لیکن اس د‏ی قدرومنزلت تجربی حلقہ د‏‏ی حد تک محدود ا‏‏ے۔ ایہ خیال عام طور پہ ادویت دے مسئلہ تو‏ں بالکل موافقت رکھدا اے کہ عملی افادیت دے لئی ضروری نئيں کہ اوہ مابعد الطبیعیاندی صداقت اُتے مبنی ہوئے۔ ایہی امتیاز اے جو ادویت وچ دو مدارج د‏‏ی تعلیم دا باعث بنا ا‏‏ے۔ اعلیٰ تر نرگن برہم د‏‏ی تعلیم تے ادنٰی تر سگن برہم د‏‏ی تعلیم۔ ادویت وچ نجات کوئی ایسی کیفیت نئيں اے جس نو‏‏ں نويں طور اُتے حاصل کيتا جا سکدا ا‏‏ے۔ ایہ اپنی ذات د‏‏ی اصلی ماہیئت ا‏‏ے۔ اس لئی معمولی مفہوم وچ مشکل تو‏ں ہی اس دے حاصل کرنے دے ذرائع دے متعلق کچھ کہیا جا سکدا ا‏‏ے۔ ایہ اس باطنی سیرت نو‏‏ں محقق کردا اے جو کدی اپنی ذا‏تی کہی جاندی سی۔ مگر فی الحال فراموش کر دتی گئی ا‏‏ے۔ ایتھ‏ے عام مثال اک شہزادہ د‏‏ی دتی جاندی اے جو بچپن تو‏ں ہی اک شکاری دے گھر پرورش پاندا اے تے بعد وچ ایہ معلوم ہُندا اے کہ اس د‏ی رگاں وچ شاہی خون دوڑ رہیا ا‏‏ے۔ اسنو‏ں جو کچھ کرنا اے اوہ ایہ اے کہ اپنے نو‏‏ں محسوس کرے یا متحقق کرے کہ اوہ شہزادہ ا‏‏ے۔ ايس‏ے طرح ادویت د‏‏ی نجات د‏‏ی صورت وچ اس رکاوٹ نو‏‏ں دور کرنے د‏‏ی ضرورت اے جو حقیقت نو‏‏ں اسيں تو‏ں پوشیدہ رکھدی ا‏‏ے۔ تجربی حیات چونکہ بالکل اگیان دا نتیجہ ا‏‏ے۔ اس لئی رکاوٹ اگیان وی اے تے اوہ صرف اس دے متضاد گیان تو‏ں ہی ہٹائی جا سکدی ا‏‏ے۔ اس لئی اسيں کہہ سکدے نيں کہ جو گیان اسنو‏ں عمل وچ لا سکدا اے اسنو‏ں بلاواسطہ وجدانی (ساکشات کار) ہونا چاہیے تے برہم دے نال اس دا تعلق بالکل اک ہونا چاہیے۔ اس د‏ی فراموشی تو‏ں ہی دنیا پیدا ہُندی ا‏‏ے۔ اخلاقیاندی کمال تے مذہبی اعمال اس وچ بلاواسطہ مدد نئيں دے سکدے۔ ارادہ د‏‏ی سعی تے محبت د‏‏ی پاکیزگی بے شک ضروری نيں لیکن ایہ صرف گیان دے لئی ممد و معاون نيں۔ جدو‏ں اک مرتبہ گیان طلوع ہوئے جاندا اے تاں اوہ اپنے اپ اگیان نو‏‏ں مٹا دیندا اے تے ايس‏ے وقت اپنی تمام باطنی شان و شوکت وچ روح دا انکشاف ہی موکش کہلاندا ا‏‏ے۔ جے علم ہی قید تو‏ں نجات حاصل کرنے دا واحد ذریعہ اے تاں گیان حاصل ہُندے ہی نجات مل جانی چاہیے۔ چنانچہ جیون مکتی دا تصور عالم خارجی دے ایداں دے خیال تے اس نجات دا منطقی نتیجہ اے تے انسانی وجود وچ کِسے نفسی یا کسے دوسرے سازوسامان د‏‏ی ایسی کوئی طاقت نئيں اے جو اس وقت تے ایتھ‏ے اس دے حصول نو‏‏ں ناممکن بنا سک‏‏ے۔ لیکن جے اس دے ذہن نشاں کرائے ہوئے علم نو‏‏ں سچی آزادی دلیانا اے تاں سانو‏ں اپنے زندہ تجربہ تو‏ں اس د‏ی تصدیق کرنا ضروری اے تے اس صورت وچ کہ "ميں برہم ہاں" (اہ‏م برہم اسمی) اس بلاواسطہ تجربہ یا مطلب دے راست وجدان نو‏‏ں دنیا دارانہ تجربہ تو‏ں امتیاز حاصل کرنا چاہندے نيں۔ ایہی ایتھ‏ے آخری سچائی دا معیار قرار پاندا ا‏‏ے۔ جیون مکت د‏‏ی زندگی دے دو پہلو ہُندے نيں۔ اک پہلو عارفانہ روحانی احتراز دا ا‏‏ے۔ جدو‏ں کہ اوہ اپنا رخ اندر نو‏‏ں کر لیندا اے تے اور برہم وچ محو ہوجاندا ا‏‏ے۔ ايس‏ے برہم یا جوہر اعلیٰ نو‏‏ں وجود، شعور یا سرور (ست چت آنند) دے نقطہ نظر تو‏ں دیکھنے د‏‏ی وجہ تو‏ں اسنو‏ں بہت وڈا آنند عطا کرنے والا برہم یا شیو کہندے نيں۔ تمام کائنات نو‏‏ں اساسی قوت د‏‏ی نظر تو‏ں دیکھنے د‏‏ی وجہ تو‏ں ايس‏ے نو‏‏ں شونیہ یا خلا کہیا جاندا ا‏‏ے۔ تمام کائنات وچ استحکا‏م دے نال بودوباش اختیار کرنے تو‏ں اسنو‏ں پورن یا مطلق کہیا جاندا ا‏‏ے۔ نقاط نظر دے فرق تو‏ں ايس‏ے اک جوہر دے کثیر ناں نيں۔ ایہ وی اک مذاق اے کہ نام، شکل تے ذات تو‏ں ماورا ہستی رکھنے والے وجود دا وی اک ناں رکھیا جاندا اے، لیکن ایہ ناں وی لفظی عمل دا مددگار ہونے تو‏ں غلط ہی کہیا جا سکدا ا‏‏ے۔ اس لئی ادویت واد یا مطلقیت دا اساسی تے اصلی فلسفہ "مون" یا سکوت ا‏‏ے۔ اس دا دوسرا پہلو اوہ اے جس د‏‏ی حالت معمولی زندگی د‏‏ی کایا پلٹ کہلاندی اے تے جدو‏ں عالم خارجی دا منظر واپس آ جاندا اے تاں اسنو‏ں دھوکھا نئيں دیندا اس لئی کہ اس نے ہمیشہ دے لئی مابعد الطبیعیاندی بطلان دا تحقق ک‏ر ليا ا‏‏ے۔ اک جیون مکت دکھ سکھ دا تجربہ کردا اے لیکن اوہ اس دے لئی کوئی اہمیت نئيں رکھدا۔ اوہ لازمی طور اُتے تمام عمل تو‏ں دست بردار نئيں ہُندا۔ اوہ سب تو‏ں یکساں محبت کردا ا‏‏ے۔ اوہ دوسرےآں دے نال ایسا سلوک کردا اے جداں کہ اوہ خود اپنے نال کردا اے اس لئی کہ اوہ خود وچ تے دوسرےآں وچ کوئی اختلاف نئيں دیکھدا۔ اوہ تمام وجود نو‏‏ں اپنے اندر دیکھدا اے تے اپنے نو‏‏ں تمام وجود وچ ۔ اس لئی کسی نال نفرت نئيں کردا اوہ جو ادویت دے علم ذات تو‏ں واقف ہوئے جاندا اے اس وچ رحم و کرم د‏‏ی طرح نیکیو‏ں دے لئی کچھ وی شعوری جدوجہد درکار نئيں ہُندی۔ اوہ سب اس د‏ی فطرت ثانی ہوئے جاندی اے تے آخر کار جدو‏ں اوہ مادی لوازمہ تو‏ں قطع تعلق کر لیندا اے تاں دوبارہ جنم نئيں لیندا بلکہ برہم د‏‏ی طرح باقی رہندا ا‏‏ے۔

حوالے[لکھو]

  1. Olivelle 1992, pp. x-xi, 8-10, 17-18.
  2. Stephen Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-8120814899, page 332 note 68
  3. Nakamura 1950, pp. 221, 680.
  4. Sharma, Chandradhar (1997), A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, p. 239, ISBN 81-208-0365-5 

ماخذ[لکھو]

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سانچہ:Refend" style="-moz-column-count: سانچہ:Refbegin

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  • Sivananda (1977), Brahma Sutras, Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Sivaraman, K. (1973), Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective: A Study of the Formative Concepts, Problems, and Methods of Śaiva Siddhānta, Motilall Banarsidass 
  • Smith, David (2003), The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8 
  • Venkatramaiah, Munagala (2000), Talks With Sri Ramana Maharshi: On Realizing Abiding Peace and Happiness, Inner Directions, ISBN 1-878019-00-7 
  • Werner, Karel (1994), The Yogi and the Mystic, Routledge 
  • Whaling, Frank (1979). "Shankara and Buddhism". Journal of Indian Philosophy 7 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1007/BF02561251. 
  • Wilber, Ken (2000), Integral Psychology, Shambhala Publications 
  • Yogani (2011), Advanced Yoga Practices Support Forum Posts of Yogani, 2005–2010, AYP Publishing 

سانچہ:Refend; -webkit-column-count: سانچہ:Refbegin

  • Allen, Michael S.; Venkatkrishnan, Anand (25 September 2017). "Introduction to Special Issue: New Directions in the Study of Advaita Vedānta". International Journal of Hindu Studies 21 (3): 271–274. doi:10.1007/s11407-017-9218-9. 
  • Balasubramanian, R. (2000). "Introduction", in Chattopadhyana: History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II Part 2: Advaita Vedanta. Centre for Studies in Civilizations. 
  • Bhattacharya, Vidhushekhara (1943). Gauḍapādakārikā. Motilal Banarsidass. 
  • Biderman, Shlomo (1978). "Śankara and the Buddhists". Journal of Indian Philosophy 6 (4). doi:10.1007/BF00218430. 
  • Brannigan, Michael (2009), Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7391-3846-5 
  • Braue, Donald A. (1984), Māyā in Radhakrishnanʾs Thought: Six Meanings Other Than Illusion, Motilall Banarsidass 
  • Brooks, Douglas Renfrew (1990). The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Shakta Tantrism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-07569-3. 
  • Brown, C. Mackenzie (1983). "The Origin and Transmission of the Two "Bhāgavata Purāṇas": A Canonical and Theological Dilemma". Journal of the American Academy of Religion (Oxford University Press) 51 (4): 551–567. doi:10.1093/jaarel/li.4.551. 
  • Caplan, Mariana (2009), Eyes Wide Open: Cultivating Discernment on the Spiritual Path, Sounds True 
  • Chapple, Christopher (1984). The Concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-955-8. OCLC 11044869. 
  • Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Dalal, Neil (2009). "Contemplative Practice and Textual Agency in Advaita Vedanta". Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 21: 15–27. doi:10.1163/157006809X416788. 
  • Dalal, Neil (2014). "Contemplative Grammars: Śaṅkara's Distinction of Upāsana and Nididhyāsana". Journal of Indian Philosophy 44: 179–206. doi:10.1007/s10781-014-9258-z. 
  • Dandekar, R.N. (2005), "Vedanta", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan 
  • Dasgupta, Surendranath (1955), A history of Indian philosophy. 5. Southern schools of ́Saivism, Volume 5, CUP Archive 
  • Dasgupta, Sanghamitra; Mohanta, Dilip Kumar (1998). Indian Philosophical Quarterly. XXV. 
  • Davis, Leesa S. (2010), Advaita Vedānta and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry, Continuum International Publishing Group 
  • Davis, Richard (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-60308-7 
  • Dense, Christian D. Von (1999), Philosophers and Religious Leaders, Greenwood Publishing Group 
  • Deussen, Paul (1980). Sixty Upaniṣads of the Veda, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass. 
  • Deutsch, Eliot (1973), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-0271-4 
  • Deutsch, Eliot (1988), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-88706-662-3 
  • Deutsch, Eliot; Dalvi, Rohit (2004), The Essential Vedanta: A New Source Book of Advaita Vedanta, World Wisdom, Inc., ISBN 978-0-941532-52-5 
  • Doniger, Wendy (1999), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster, ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0 
  • Dyczkowski, Mark (1989), The Canon of the Śaivāgama, Motilal Banarsidass Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 978-8120805958 
  • Fort, Andrew (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-3904-3 
  • Fost, Frederic F. (1998). "Playful Illusion: The Making of Worlds in Advaita Vedanta". Philosophy East and West (University of Hawai'i Press) 48 (3): 387–405. doi:10.2307/1400333. 
  • Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 
  • (2003) The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Blackwell. 
  • Fort, Andrew O. (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, SUNY Press 
  • Fowler, Jeaneane D (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6 
  • Gleig, Ann Louise (2011), Enlightenment After the Enlightenment: American Transformations of Asian Contemplative Traditions, RICE UNIVERSITY/ProQuest (PhD Thesis) 
  • Goodall, Dominic (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3 
  • Grimes, John (1998), "Book reviews: Early Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism: The Mahayana Context of the Gaudapadiya-karika, by Richard King. SUNY Press (1995)", Journal of the American Academy of Religion 66 (3): 684, doi:10.1093/jaarel/66.3.684, retrieved 2011-11-29 
  • Grimes, John A. (1990), The seven great untenables: Sapta-vidhā anupapatti, Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Grimes, John A. (1996), A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, SUNY Press 
  • Hirst, J. G. Suthren (2005), Śaṃkara's Advaita Vedānta: A Way of Teaching, Routledge 
  • Indich, William (2000), Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812512 
  • Ingalls, Daniel H. (1954), "Śaṁkara's arguments against the buddhists", Philosophy East and West 3 (4): 291–306, JSTOR 1397287, doi:10.2307/1397287 
  • Isaeva, N.V. (1993), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, SUNY Press 
  • Jacobs, Alan (2004), "Advaita and Western Neo-Advaita", The Mountain Path Journal (Ramanasramam): 81–88, archived from the original on 18 May 2015  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  • (2006) Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. 
  • (2004) "Shankara's Advaita", Mysticism and Morality: A New Look at Old Questions. Lexington Books, 95–114. 
  • Kalupahana, David J. (1994), A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited 
  • King, Richard (1995), Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: The Mahāyāna Context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press 
  • King, Richard (1999). "Orientalism and the Modern Myth of "Hinduism"". NUMEN (BRILL) 46 (2): 146–185. doi:10.1163/1568527991517950. 
  • King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge 
  • Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1984), Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 978-0-88920-158-3 
  • Klostermaier, Klaus k. (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, Oneworld Publications, ISBN 978-1-85168-538-7 
  • Kochumuttom, Thomas A. (1999), A buddhist Doctrine of Experience. A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu the Yogacarin, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Koller, John M. (2006), "Foreword", A thousand teachings: the Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, Motilall Banarsidass 
  • Koller, John M. (2013), "Shankara", in Meister, Chad; Copan, Paul, Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge 
  • Kumar Das, Sisir (2006). A history of Indian literature, 500–1399. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-2171-0. 
  • Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Volume One: A-M, The Rosen Publishing Group 
  • Lochtefeld, James (2002a), "Brahman", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8 
  • Lorenzen, David N. (2006). Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History. Yoda Press. ISBN 9788190227261. 
  • Lucas, Phillip Charles (2011), "When a Movement Is Not a Movement", Nova Religio 15 (2): 93–114, JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93, doi:10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93 
  • Madaio, James (24 May 2017). "Rethinking Neo-Vedānta: Swami Vivekananda and the Selective Historiography of Advaita Vedānta1". Religions 8 (6): 101. doi:10.3390/rel8060101. 
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  • Sheridan, Daniel (1991). Texts in Context: Traditional Hermeneutics in South Asia (Editor: Jeffrey Timm). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0796-7. 
  • Sivananda (1977), Brahma Sutras, Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Sivaraman, K. (1973), Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective: A Study of the Formative Concepts, Problems, and Methods of Śaiva Siddhānta, Motilall Banarsidass 
  • Smith, David (2003), The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8 
  • Venkatramaiah, Munagala (2000), Talks With Sri Ramana Maharshi: On Realizing Abiding Peace and Happiness, Inner Directions, ISBN 1-878019-00-7 
  • Werner, Karel (1994), The Yogi and the Mystic, Routledge 
  • Whaling, Frank (1979). "Shankara and Buddhism". Journal of Indian Philosophy 7 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1007/BF02561251. 
  • Wilber, Ken (2000), Integral Psychology, Shambhala Publications 
  • Yogani (2011), Advanced Yoga Practices Support Forum Posts of Yogani, 2005–2010, AYP Publishing 

سانچہ:Refend; column-count: سانچہ:Refbegin

  • Allen, Michael S.; Venkatkrishnan, Anand (25 September 2017). "Introduction to Special Issue: New Directions in the Study of Advaita Vedānta". International Journal of Hindu Studies 21 (3): 271–274. doi:10.1007/s11407-017-9218-9. 
  • Balasubramanian, R. (2000). "Introduction", in Chattopadhyana: History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II Part 2: Advaita Vedanta. Centre for Studies in Civilizations. 
  • Bhattacharya, Vidhushekhara (1943). Gauḍapādakārikā. Motilal Banarsidass. 
  • Biderman, Shlomo (1978). "Śankara and the Buddhists". Journal of Indian Philosophy 6 (4). doi:10.1007/BF00218430. 
  • Brannigan, Michael (2009), Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7391-3846-5 
  • Braue, Donald A. (1984), Māyā in Radhakrishnanʾs Thought: Six Meanings Other Than Illusion, Motilall Banarsidass 
  • Brooks, Douglas Renfrew (1990). The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Shakta Tantrism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-07569-3. 
  • Brown, C. Mackenzie (1983). "The Origin and Transmission of the Two "Bhāgavata Purāṇas": A Canonical and Theological Dilemma". Journal of the American Academy of Religion (Oxford University Press) 51 (4): 551–567. doi:10.1093/jaarel/li.4.551. 
  • Caplan, Mariana (2009), Eyes Wide Open: Cultivating Discernment on the Spiritual Path, Sounds True 
  • Chapple, Christopher (1984). The Concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-955-8. OCLC 11044869. 
  • Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Dalal, Neil (2009). "Contemplative Practice and Textual Agency in Advaita Vedanta". Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 21: 15–27. doi:10.1163/157006809X416788. 
  • Dalal, Neil (2014). "Contemplative Grammars: Śaṅkara's Distinction of Upāsana and Nididhyāsana". Journal of Indian Philosophy 44: 179–206. doi:10.1007/s10781-014-9258-z. 
  • Dandekar, R.N. (2005), "Vedanta", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan 
  • Dasgupta, Surendranath (1955), A history of Indian philosophy. 5. Southern schools of ́Saivism, Volume 5, CUP Archive 
  • Dasgupta, Sanghamitra; Mohanta, Dilip Kumar (1998). Indian Philosophical Quarterly. XXV. 
  • Davis, Leesa S. (2010), Advaita Vedānta and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry, Continuum International Publishing Group 
  • Davis, Richard (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-60308-7 
  • Dense, Christian D. Von (1999), Philosophers and Religious Leaders, Greenwood Publishing Group 
  • Deussen, Paul (1980). Sixty Upaniṣads of the Veda, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass. 
  • Deutsch, Eliot (1973), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-0271-4 
  • Deutsch, Eliot (1988), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-88706-662-3 
  • Deutsch, Eliot; Dalvi, Rohit (2004), The Essential Vedanta: A New Source Book of Advaita Vedanta, World Wisdom, Inc., ISBN 978-0-941532-52-5 
  • Doniger, Wendy (1999), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster, ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0 
  • Dyczkowski, Mark (1989), The Canon of the Śaivāgama, Motilal Banarsidass Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 978-8120805958 
  • Fort, Andrew (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-3904-3 
  • Fost, Frederic F. (1998). "Playful Illusion: The Making of Worlds in Advaita Vedanta". Philosophy East and West (University of Hawai'i Press) 48 (3): 387–405. doi:10.2307/1400333. 
  • Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 
  • (2003) The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Blackwell. 
  • Fort, Andrew O. (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, SUNY Press 
  • Fowler, Jeaneane D (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6 
  • Gleig, Ann Louise (2011), Enlightenment After the Enlightenment: American Transformations of Asian Contemplative Traditions, RICE UNIVERSITY/ProQuest (PhD Thesis) 
  • Goodall, Dominic (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3 
  • Grimes, John (1998), "Book reviews: Early Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism: The Mahayana Context of the Gaudapadiya-karika, by Richard King. SUNY Press (1995)", Journal of the American Academy of Religion 66 (3): 684, doi:10.1093/jaarel/66.3.684, retrieved 2011-11-29 
  • Grimes, John A. (1990), The seven great untenables: Sapta-vidhā anupapatti, Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Grimes, John A. (1996), A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, SUNY Press 
  • Hirst, J. G. Suthren (2005), Śaṃkara's Advaita Vedānta: A Way of Teaching, Routledge 
  • Indich, William (2000), Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812512 
  • Ingalls, Daniel H. (1954), "Śaṁkara's arguments against the buddhists", Philosophy East and West 3 (4): 291–306, JSTOR 1397287, doi:10.2307/1397287 
  • Isaeva, N.V. (1993), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, SUNY Press 
  • Jacobs, Alan (2004), "Advaita and Western Neo-Advaita", The Mountain Path Journal (Ramanasramam): 81–88, archived from the original on 18 May 2015  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  • (2006) Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. 
  • (2004) "Shankara's Advaita", Mysticism and Morality: A New Look at Old Questions. Lexington Books, 95–114. 
  • Kalupahana, David J. (1994), A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited 
  • King, Richard (1995), Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: The Mahāyāna Context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press 
  • King, Richard (1999). "Orientalism and the Modern Myth of "Hinduism"". NUMEN (BRILL) 46 (2): 146–185. doi:10.1163/1568527991517950. 
  • King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge 
  • Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1984), Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 978-0-88920-158-3 
  • Klostermaier, Klaus k. (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, Oneworld Publications, ISBN 978-1-85168-538-7 
  • Kochumuttom, Thomas A. (1999), A buddhist Doctrine of Experience. A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu the Yogacarin, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Koller, John M. (2006), "Foreword", A thousand teachings: the Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, Motilall Banarsidass 
  • Koller, John M. (2013), "Shankara", in Meister, Chad; Copan, Paul, Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge 
  • Kumar Das, Sisir (2006). A history of Indian literature, 500–1399. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-2171-0. 
  • Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Volume One: A-M, The Rosen Publishing Group 
  • Lochtefeld, James (2002a), "Brahman", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8 
  • Lorenzen, David N. (2006). Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History. Yoda Press. ISBN 9788190227261. 
  • Lucas, Phillip Charles (2011), "When a Movement Is Not a Movement", Nova Religio 15 (2): 93–114, JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93, doi:10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93 
  • Madaio, James (24 May 2017). "Rethinking Neo-Vedānta: Swami Vivekananda and the Selective Historiography of Advaita Vedānta1". Religions 8 (6): 101. doi:10.3390/rel8060101. 
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