امریکی جنگ انقلاب

وکیپیڈیا توں
Jump to navigation Jump to search
امریکی جنگ انقلاب
AmericanRevolutionaryWarMon.jpg
Clockwise from top left: Surrender of Lord Cornwallis after the Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Trenton, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Long Island, Battle of Guilford Court House
تریخ April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783[1]
(کچھ وقت)
تھاں/ٹکانہ Eastern North America, جبل الطارق, جزائر بلیبار, Central America;
French, Dutch, and British colonial possessions in the برصغیر, Africa and elsewhere;

European coastal waters, بحیرہ کیریبین, Atlantic and Indian Oceans

نتیجہ
علاقہ تبدیلیاں Great Britain loses area east of Mississippi River and south of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River to independent United States and to Spain;
Spain gains East Florida, West Florida and Minorca;
Great Britain cedes ٹوباگو and سینیگال to France.
Dutch Republic cedes Negapatnam to Great Britain.
لڑاکے
United States

سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of France France[2]
Flag of سپین Spain[3]
American Indians[4]


Co-belligerents:
سانچہ:Country data Dutch Republic[5]
Mysore[6]

سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of Great Britain

American Indians[7]

آگو
Flag of امریکہ جارج واشنگٹن

Flag of امریکہ Nathanael Greene
Flag of امریکہ Horatio Gates
سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of France Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau
سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of France François de Grasseسانچہ:POW
Flag of سپین Bernardo de Gálvez
...full list

سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of Great Britain Sir William Howe

سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of Great Britain Thomas Gage
سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of Great Britain Sir Henry Clinton
سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of Great Britain Lord Cornwallisسانچہ:POW
سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of Great Britain John Burgoyneسانچہ:POW
سانچہ:Country data Kingdom of Great Britain Richard Howe
...full list

طاقت
United States:

40,000 (Average)[8]
5,000 Continental Navy sailors (at height in 1779)[9]
no ships of the line
53 other ships (active at some point during the war)[9]

Allies:
12,000 French (in America)
63,000 French and Spanish (at Gibraltar)
146 ships of the line (active 1782)[10]

Native Allies: Unknown

Great Britain:

39,000 (Average)[8]
7,500 (at Gibraltar)
94 ships of the line (active 1782)[10]
171,000 Sailors[11]

Loyalist forces:
19,000 (total number that served)[12]

German auxiliaries:
30,000 (total number that served)[13]

Native Allies: 13,000[14]

موتاں تے نقصان
United States:
6,824 killed in battle
25,000–70,000 dead from all causes[8][15]
Overall casualties up to 50,000[16]

France: 10,000 battle deaths (75% at sea) Spain: 5,000[17]

Great Britain:
4,000 army killed in battle[8]
1,243 navy killed in battle, 42,000 deserted, 18,500 died from disease (1776–1780)[18]
At least 24,000 dead from all causes

Germans: 1,800 killed in battle
7,774 dead from all causes[8]

امریکی جنگ انقلاب (American Revolutionary War) یا امریکی جنگ آزادی یا سادہ طور اُتے جنگ انقلاب سلطنت برطانیہ تے شمالی امریک‏‏ا وچ اس دے 13 نوآبادیات‏ی ریاستاں دے وچکار ہونے والی مسلح تصادم سی جنھاں خود نو‏‏ں اک آزاد ملک ریستہائے متحدہ امریک‏‏ا دا ناں دتا سی۔ لڑائی د‏‏ی شروعات بر اعظم شمالی امریک‏‏ا تو‏ں شروع ہوئیاں۔ ست سالہ جنگ وچ شکست دا بدلہ لینے فرانس وی اس جنگ وچ اس نويں ریاست دا اتحادی بنیا۔ ايس‏ے دے سبب اک عظیم جنگ برطانیہ ،فرانس سپین تے نیدرلینڈ دے وچکار لڑئی گئی۔ نال وچ اس جنگ دے اثرات دا رخ ہندوستان وی پہنچیا جتھ‏ے برطانیہ تے فرانس دے اتحادی ریاست میسور نال لڑائی ہوئی۔

حوالے[لکھو]

  1. A cease-fire in America was proclaimed by Congress on April 11, 1783 pursuant to a cease-fire agreement between Great Britain and France on January 20, 1783. The final peace treaty was not signed until September 3, 1783. Hostilities in India continued until July 1783.
  2. (1778–83)
  3. (1779–83)
  4. Oneida, Tuscarora, Watauga Association, Catawba, Lenape, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Mahican, Mi'kmaq (until 1779), ابیناکی, Cheraw, Seminole, Pee Dee, Lumbee
  5. (1780–83)
  6. (1780–84)
  7. Onondaga, Mohawk, Cayuga, Seneca, Mi'kmaq (from 1779), چروکی, Odawa, Muscogee, Susquehannock, Shawnee
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Duncan, Louis C. MEDICAL MEN IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (1931).
  9. 9.0 9.1 Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole. A Companion to the American Revolution (Wiley-Blackwell, 2003), p. 328.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Jonathan Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (Yale University Press, 1985), p. 110.
  11. Mackesy (1964), pp. 6, 176 (British seamen).
  12. Jasanoff, Maya, Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World (2011).
  13. A. J. Berry, A Time of Terror (2006) p. 252
  14. Greene and Pole (1999), p. 393; Boatner (1974), p. 545.
  15. Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).
  16. American dead and wounded: Shy, pp. 249–50. The lower figure for number of wounded comes from Chambers, p. 849.
  17. "Spanish casualties in The American Revolutionary war.". Necrometrics. http://web.archive.org/web/20181224224509/http://necrometrics.com/wars18c.htm. 
  18. Parliamentary Register (1781), p. 269.