شہر ریاست

آزاد انسائیکلوپیڈیا، وکیپیڈیا توں
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شہر ریاست (City-state) اک آزاد یا خود مختار سیاسی وجود اے جو کسی تے مقامی حکومت دے زیر انتظام نئيں، جس دا علاقہ اک شہر تے عام طور اُتے اس دے ارد گرد دے علاقے اُتے مشتمل ا‏‏ے۔[۱][۲]

عام طور اُتے مندرجہ ذیل نو‏‏ں شہر ریاست کہیا جاندا ا‏‏ے۔

ہور جدید شہر ریاستاں دے طور مندرجہ ذیل دا حوالہ دتا جاندا اے:

حوالے[لکھو]

  1. (2009) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. “A sovereign state consisting of an independent city and its surrounding territory.” 
  2. (2003) Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. HarperCollins Publishers. “a state consisting of a sovereign city and its dependencies. Among the most famous are the great independent cities of the ancient world, such as Athens, Sparta, Carthage, and Rome.” 
  3. "The emblem of Malta, Department of Information, Official Website of President of Malta". Doi.gov.mt. https://web.archive.org/web/20181225200547/https://president.gov.mt/emblem_malta?l=1%20. Retrieved on
    20 October 2013. 
  4. "This very crowded isle: England is most over-populated country in EU"ڈیلی میل
  5. "''Draft National Strategy for the Cultural and Creative Industries – Creative Malta''". Creativemalta.gov.mt. http://www.creativemalta.gov.mt/internationalisation/introduction. Retrieved on
    20 October 2013. 
  6. Maltaیورپی مرکزی بینک
  7. ۷.۰ ۷.۱ ۷.۲ ۷.۳ ۷.۴ ۷.۵ Mogens, Hansen. 2000. "Introduction: The Concepts of City-States and City-State Culture." In A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Polis Centre. Pg. 19
  8. Parker, Geoffrey. 2005. Sovereign City: The City-state Through History Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  9. ۹.۰ ۹.۱ ۹.۲ Mogens, Hansen. 2002. A Comparative Study of Six City-State Cultures: An InvestigationPg. 91
  10. Mogens, Hansen. 2000. "Introduction: The Concepts of City-States and City-State Culture." In A Comparative Study of Six City-State Cultures, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Polis Centre. Pg. 19
  11. ۱۱.۰ ۱۱.۱ ۱۱.۲ ۱۱.۳ Parker, Geoffrey. 2005. Sovereign City: The City-state Through History Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pg. 219
  12. Roberts, David. 2014. Qatar: Securing the Global Ambitions of a City-state. London: C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd.
  13. El-Katiri, Laura, Bassam Fattouh and Paul Segal. 2011 Anatomy of an oil-based welfare state: rent distribution in Kuwait. Kuwait City: Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States