قات

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قات

قات (Khat یا Qat) (عربی: قات) [1] قرن افریقہ تے جزیرہ نما عرب دا اک مقامی پھُل دار پودا ا‏‏ے۔ انہاں علاقےآں دے لوکاں وچ قات چبانے د‏‏ی تریخ ہزاراں سال پرانی ا‏‏ے۔[2]

ضابطہ[لکھو]

1980 وچ عالمی ادارہ صحت قات د‏‏ی درجہ بندی اک نشہ آور پودے دے طور اُتے د‏‏ی (تمباکو یا شراب تو‏ں کم) "[3]

افریقہ[لکھو]

ایتھوپیتا[لکھو]

قانونی - ایتھوپیتا۔[4]

صومالیہ[لکھو]

قانونی - صومالیہ۔<[4]

جبوتی[لکھو]

قانونی - جبونتی۔[5]

کینیا[لکھو]

قانونی - کینیا۔[6]

جنوبی افریقہ[لکھو]

جنوبی افریقہ وچ ، قات اک محفوظ درخت ا‏‏ے۔[7]

ایشیا[لکھو]

چین[لکھو]

غیر قانونی - چین.[8]

اسرائیل[لکھو]

بنیادی طور اُتے یمنی یہودی استعمال کردے نيں۔

ملائشیا[لکھو]

غیر قانونی - ملائشیا۔

سعودی عرب[لکھو]

غیر قانونی - سعودی عرب۔[9]

يمن[لکھو]

قانونی - يمن۔<[4]

یورپ[لکھو]

فنلینڈ[لکھو]

غیر قانونی [10]

فرانس[لکھو]

ممنوع [11]

جرمنی[لکھو]

غیر قانونی

آئس لینڈ[لکھو]

غیر قانونی .[12][13]

جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ[لکھو]

ممنوع

نیدرلینڈز[لکھو]

غیر قانونی [14][15][16]

ناروے[لکھو]

غیر قانونی [17]

پولینڈ[لکھو]

غیر قانونی [18]

برطانیہ[لکھو]

غیر قانونی [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]

شمالی امریک‏‏ا[لکھو]

کینیڈا[لکھو]

غیر قانونی [33][34][35]

ریاستہائے متحدہ امریک‏‏ا[لکھو]

ممنوع [36][37][38][39]

جنوبی امریک‏‏ا[لکھو]

جنوبی امریک‏‏ا وچ قات دے بارے وچ کوئی قانون نئيں اے

اوقیانوسیہ[لکھو]

آسٹریلیا[لکھو]

قات د‏‏ی درآمد نو‏‏ں کسٹم دے تحت کنٹرول کیتا جاندا ا‏‏ے۔ انفرادی صارفین دے لئی اجازت نامہ حاصل کرنا ضروری ا‏‏ے۔[40][41][42][43]

حوالے[لکھو]

  1. Dickens, Charles [Digitized February 19, 2010] (1856). "The Orsons of East Africa", Household Words: A Weekly Journal, Volume 14. Bradbury & Evans, 176. Retrieved on 9 January 2014.  سانچہ:Open access سانچہ:Link note
  2. Al-Mugahed, Leen (2008). "Khat Chewing in Yemen: Turning over a New Leaf: Khat Chewing Is on the Rise in Yemen, Raising Concerns about the Health and Social Consequences". Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86 (10): 741–2. doi:10.2471/BLT.08.011008. PMID 18949206. PMC: 2649518. http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-188738635/khat-chewing-in-yemen-turning-over-a-new-leaf-khat. Retrieved on 9 جنوری 2014. 
  3. "World Health Organization Expert Committee on Dependence-producing Drugs: Fourteenth Report". United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime. https://web.archive.org/web/20030830160515/http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/bulletin/bulletin_1965-01-01_4_page007.html. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic". Journal of psychoactive drugs (Haight-Ashbury Publications) 41: 3. 2009.
  5. Thomson Gale (Firm), Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2007, Volume 1, (Thomson Gale: 2006), p.545.
  6. "SAPTA – Khat". https://web.archive.org/web/20120718093414/http://www.sapta.or.ke/alcohodrug-information. 
  7. "Protected Trees". Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa. 3 May 2013.
  8. "Visitors Please Do Not Carry Khat into چین". May 4, 2014. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020311/http://in.chineseembassy.org/eng/gdxw/t1152267.htm. 
  9. "Khat (catha edulis)". Ekhat. http://ekhat.org/all-you-want-to-know-about-what-is-khat-plant-qat-catha-edulis. Retrieved on 29 June 2013. 
  10. "Khat use on the increase in Finland". HELSINGIN SANOMAT. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020237/https://www.hs.fi/english/article/Khat+use+on+the+increase+in+Finland/1135233645151%20/. Retrieved on 23 مئی 2011. 
  11. Drugs.com (1 January 2007). "Complete Khat Info". Jump up ^ Giannini, A.J.; Castellani, S. (July 1982). "A manic-like psychosis due to khat (Catha edulis Forsk.)". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology 19 (5): 455–9. doi:10.3109/15563658208992500. PMID 7175990
  12. "Hald lagt á fíkniefnið Khat í fyrsta sinn" (in Icelandic). 2010-08-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020305/https://www.mbl.is/frettir/innlent/2010/08/18/hald_lagt_a_fikniefnid_khat_i_fyrsta_sinn/%20/. 
  13. "60 kíló af fíkniefnum" (in Icelandic). 2011-05-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020318/https://www.mbl.is/frettir/innlent/2011/05/18/60_kilo_af_fikniefnum/%20/. 
  14. "khat" (in Dutch). Infopolitie.nl. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020320/https://www.infopolitie.nl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1331:khat&catid=183:middelen&Itemid=46%20. Retrieved on 2 April 2010. 
  15. "Qat niet verboden" (in Dutch). DePers.nl. http://www.depers.nl/binnenland/163037/Qat-niet-verboden.html. Retrieved on 2 April 2010. 
  16. "Kabinet verbiedt qat" (in Dutch). Nu.nl. 10 January 2012. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020208/https://www.nu.nl/politiek/2711346/kabinet-verbiedt-qat.html%20. Retrieved on 10 January 2012. 
  17. "NOVA paper 1/06". 16 March 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020215/http://www.nova.no/index.gan?objid=11648&subid=0&language=1%20. 
  18. "Dz.U. 2009 nr 63 poz. 520". http://isip.sejm.gov.pl/servlet/Search?todo=open&id=WDU20090630520. سانچہ:Dead link
  19. Klein, Axel (2007). "Khat and the creation of tradition in the Somali diaspora", Drugs in Society: European Perspectives. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing, 51–61. ISBN 978-1-84619-093-3. 
  20. Warfa, N.; Klein, A.; Bhui, K.; Leavey, G.; Craig, T.; Alfred Stansfeld, S. (2007). "Khat use and mental illness: A critical review". Social Science & Medicine 65 (2): 309–318. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.04.038. PMID 17544193. 
  21. Warsi, Sayeeda (15 June 2008). "Conservatives will ban khat". Comment is free (London: The Guardian). http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020206/https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jun/15/drugspolicy.somalia+. Retrieved on 21 اگست 2010. 
  22. "Where we stand: Community relations". Conservative Party. https://web.archive.org/web/20080930064304/http://www.conservatives.com/Policy/Where_we_stand/Community_Relations.aspx. Retrieved on 21 August 2010. 
  23. "Call for new controls on legal drug khat". Sky News. 19 June 2010. http://archive.is/oy680. Retrieved on 26 جنوری 2014. 
  24. "Hansard 11 Jan 2012". Hansard. 11 January 2012. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020250/https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201212/cmhansrd/cm120111/debtext/120111-0004.htm. Retrieved on 12 January 2012. 
  25. "Khat: A review of its potential harms to the individual and communities in the UK". Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. 23 January 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/144120/report-2013.pdf. 
  26. "Written statement to Parliament: Khat". HM Government. 3 July 2013. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020212/https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/khat%20. 
  27. "Herbal stimulant khat to be banned". BBC News. 3 July 2013. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020307/https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-23163017. 
  28. "BBC News – Khat: What impact will UK herb stimulant ban have?". BBC News. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020300/https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/uk-25854577/khat-what-impact-will-uk-herb-stimulant-ban-have. Retrieved on 2014-01-24. 
  29. "YouTube – Khat Power: The Latest War On Drugs". Youtube.com. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020324/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JntqpqDTvjs. Retrieved on 2014-01-24. 
  30. "BBC News – Don't make khat a class-C drug, MPs urge government". bbc.co.uk. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020252/https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-25141620. Retrieved on 2014-04-03. 
  31. "BBC News – Kenya appeals to UK not to ban khat". bbc.co.uk. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020202/https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-25120302. Retrieved on 2014-04-03. 
  32. "UK legislators to press for lifting ban on Miraa Read". Standard Digital. 7 March 2014. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020241/https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/thecounties/article/2000106268/uk-legislators-to-press-for-lifting-ban-on-miraa. Retrieved on 17 مارچ 2014. 
  33. "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act". Laws.justice.gc.ca. 29 March 2010. http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showdoc/cs/C-38.8/bo-ga:s_1::bo-ga:s_2?page=2. Retrieved on 4 April 2010. سانچہ:Dead link
  34. "Gangs infiltrate Canada's airports". The Christian Science Monitor. 16 December 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020240/https://www.csmonitor.com/World/2008/1216/p06s01-wogn.html. Retrieved on 2 اپریل 2010. 
  35. Powell, Betsy (20 April 2012). "Woman who brought khat to Canada wins appeal". The Star. https://web.archive.org/web/20140109034700/http://www.thestar.com/news/crime/2012/04/20/woman_who_brought_khat_to_canada_wins_appeal.html. Retrieved on 26 جنوری 2014. 
  36. "Erowid Khat Vault : Law : Federal Register vol 58, no 9". Erowid.org. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020309/https://www.erowid.org/plants/khat/khat_law1.shtml%20. Retrieved on 2 April 2010. 
  37. سانچہ:Cite press release
  38. Federal Register (14 January 1993). "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Cathinone and 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine Into Schedule I". http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020255/http://articles.latimes.com/2006/aug/22/nation/na-khat22. Retrieved on 1 فروری 2010. سانچہ:Clarify
  39. "Section 195-017 Substances, how placed in schedules-li". Moga.mo.gov. 28 August 2009. http://www.moga.mo.gov/statutes/C100-199/1950000017.HTM. Retrieved on 2 April 2010. 
  40. Stewart, Cameron (23 July 2008). "Somali women demand government action on legal drug". The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,24063019-5006785,00.html. Retrieved on 5 اگست 2008. 
  41. "Guidance for completing Licence and Import Permit applications (Khat)". Department of Health and Ageing, Commonwealth of Australia. May 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020323/http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/application-forms-and-guidelines/$File/10-IMP-APPL-6-V2.2-Licence-Permit-Import-Khat.pdf%20. Retrieved on 5 August 2008. 
  42. "Austlii Consolidated Acts – DRUGS MISUSE REGULATION 1987(Qld) – SCHEDULE 2". Austlii.edu.au. http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/legis/qld/consol_reg/dmr1987256/sch2.html?query=Catha%20edulis. Retrieved on 4 April 2010. 
  43. "Associate Professor Heather Douglas, University of Queensland". Law.uq.edu.au. 9 December 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20181226020233/https://law.uq.edu.au/?page=122977%20%3Fpage%3D122977%20. Retrieved on 4 April 2010.