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قات

آزاد انسائیکلوپیڈیا، وکیپیڈیا توں
قات

قات (Khat یا Qat) (عربی: قات) [۱] قرن افریقہ تے جزیرہ نما عرب دا اک مقامی پھُل دار پودا ا‏‏ے۔ انہاں علاقےآں دے لوکاں وچ قات چبانے د‏‏ی تریخ ہزاراں سال پرانی ا‏‏ے۔[۲]

ضابطہ[سودھو]

1980 وچ عالمی ادارہ صحت قات د‏‏ی درجہ بندی اک نشہ آور پودے دے طور اُتے د‏‏ی (تمباکو یا شراب تو‏ں کم) "[۳]

افریقہ[سودھو]

ایتھوپیتا[سودھو]

قانونی - ایتھوپیتا۔[۴]

صومالیہ[سودھو]

قانونی - صومالیہ۔<[۴]

جبوتی[سودھو]

قانونی - جبونتی۔[۵]

کینیا[سودھو]

قانونی - کینیا۔[۶]

جنوبی افریقہ[سودھو]

جنوبی افریقہ وچ ، قات اک محفوظ درخت ا‏‏ے۔[۷]

ایشیا[سودھو]

چین[سودھو]

غیر قانونی - چین.[۸]

اسرائیل[سودھو]

بنیادی طور اُتے یمنی یہودی استعمال کردے نيں۔

ملائشیا[سودھو]

غیر قانونی - ملائشیا۔

سعودی عرب[سودھو]

غیر قانونی - سعودی عرب۔[۹]

يمن[سودھو]

قانونی - يمن۔<[۴]

یورپ[سودھو]

فنلینڈ[سودھو]

غیر قانونی [۱۰]

فرانس[سودھو]

ممنوع [۱۱]

جرمنی[سودھو]

غیر قانونی

آئس لینڈ[سودھو]

غیر قانونی .[۱۲][۱۳]

جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ[سودھو]

ممنوع

نیدرلینڈز[سودھو]

غیر قانونی [۱۴][۱۵][۱۶]

ناروے[سودھو]

غیر قانونی [۱۷]

پولینڈ[سودھو]

غیر قانونی [۱۸]

برطانیہ[سودھو]

غیر قانونی [۱۹][۲۰][۲۱][۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵][۲۶][۲۷][۲۸][۲۹][۳۰][۳۱][۳۲]

شمالی امریک‏‏ا[سودھو]

کینیڈا[سودھو]

غیر قانونی [۳۳][۳۴][۳۵]

ریاستہائے متحدہ امریک‏‏ا[سودھو]

ممنوع [۳۶][۳۷][۳۸][۳۹]

جنوبی امریک‏‏ا[سودھو]

جنوبی امریک‏‏ا وچ قات دے بارے وچ کوئی قانون نئيں اے

اوقیانوسیہ[سودھو]

آسٹریلیا[سودھو]

قات د‏‏ی درآمد نو‏‏ں کسٹم دے تحت کنٹرول کیتا جاندا ا‏‏ے۔ انفرادی صارفین دے لئی اجازت نامہ حاصل کرنا ضروری ا‏‏ے۔[۴۰][۴۱][۴۲][۴۳]

حوالے[سودھو]

  1. Dickens, Charles [Digitized February 19, 2010] (1856). "The Orsons of East Africa", Household Words: A Weekly Journal, Volume 14. Bradbury & Evans, 176. Retrieved on 9 January 2014.  سانچہ:Open access (Free eBook)
  2. Al-Mugahed, Leen (2008). "Khat Chewing in Yemen: Turning over a New Leaf: Khat Chewing Is on the Rise in Yemen, Raising Concerns about the Health and Social Consequences". Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86 (10): 741–2. doi:10.2471/BLT.08.011008. PMID 18949206. PMC: 2649518. http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-188738635/khat-chewing-in-yemen-turning-over-a-new-leaf-khat. Retrieved on
    ۹ جنوری ۲۰۱۴.  Archived 26 December 2018 at the وے بیک مشین
  3. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  4. ۴.۰ ۴.۱ ۴.۲ "Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic". Journal of psychoactive drugs (Haight-Ashbury Publications) 41: 3. 2009.
  5. Thomson Gale (Firm), Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook 2007, Volume 1, (Thomson Gale: 2006), p.545.
  6. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  7. "Protected Trees". Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa. 3 May 2013.
  8. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
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  10. "Khat use on the increase in Finland". HELSINGIN SANOMAT. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226020237/https://www.hs.fi/english/article/Khat+use+on+the+increase+in+Finland/1135233645151%20/. Retrieved on
    ۲۳ مئی ۲۰۱۱. 
  11. Drugs.com (1 January 2007). "Complete Khat Info". Jump up ^ Giannini, A.J.; Castellani, S. (July 1982). "A manic-like psychosis due to khat (Catha edulis Forsk.)". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology 19 (5): 455–9. doi:10.3109/15563658208992500. PMID 7175990
  12. "Hald lagt á fíkniefnið Khat í fyrsta sinn" (in Icelandic). 2010-08-19. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226020305/https://www.mbl.is/frettir/innlent/2010/08/18/hald_lagt_a_fikniefnid_khat_i_fyrsta_sinn/%20/. Retrieved on
    ۲۰ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۹. 
  13. "60 kíló af fíkniefnum" (in Icelandic). 2011-05-18. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226020318/https://www.mbl.is/frettir/innlent/2011/05/18/60_kilo_af_fikniefnum/%20/. Retrieved on
    ۲۰ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۹. 
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  18. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).سانچہ:Dead link
  19. Klein, Axel (2007). "Khat and the creation of tradition in the Somali diaspora", Drugs in Society: European Perspectives. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing, 51–61. ISBN 978-1-84619-093-3. 
  20. Warfa, N.; Klein, A.; Bhui, K.; Leavey, G.; Craig, T.; Alfred Stansfeld, S. (2007). "Khat use and mental illness: A critical review". Social Science & Medicine 65 (2): 309–318. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.04.038. PMID 17544193. 
  21. Warsi, Sayeeda (15 June 2008). "Conservatives will ban khat". Comment is free (London: The Guardian). https://web.archive.org/web/20181226020206/https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jun/15/drugspolicy.somalia+. Retrieved on
    ۲۱ اگست ۲۰۱۰. 
  22. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  23. "Call for new controls on legal drug khat". Sky News. 19 June 2010. https://archive.ph/20140126040555/http://news.sky.com/story/786736/call-for-new-controls-on-legal-drug-khat. Retrieved on
    ۲۶ جنوری ۲۰۱۴. 
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  27. "Herbal stimulant khat to be banned". BBC News. 3 July 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226020307/https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-23163017. Retrieved on
    ۲۰ اکتوبر ۲۰۱۹. 
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  32. "UK legislators to press for lifting ban on Miraa Read". Standard Digital. 7 March 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226020241/https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/thecounties/article/2000106268/uk-legislators-to-press-for-lifting-ban-on-miraa. Retrieved on
    ۱۷ مارچ ۲۰۱۴. 
  33. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).سانچہ:Dead link
  34. "Gangs infiltrate Canada's airports". The Christian Science Monitor. 16 December 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226020240/https://www.csmonitor.com/World/2008/1216/p06s01-wogn.html. Retrieved on
    ۲ اپریل ۲۰۱۰. 
  35. Powell, Betsy (20 April 2012). "Woman who brought khat to Canada wins appeal". The Star. https://web.archive.org/web/20140109034700/http://www.thestar.com/news/crime/2012/04/20/woman_who_brought_khat_to_canada_wins_appeal.html. Retrieved on
    ۲۶ جنوری ۲۰۱۴. 
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  37. سانچہ:Cite press release
  38. Federal Register (14 January 1993). "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Cathinone and 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine Into Schedule I". https://web.archive.org/web/20181226020255/http://articles.latimes.com/2006/aug/22/nation/na-khat22. Retrieved on
    ۱ فروری ۲۰۱۰. 
  39. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  40. Stewart, Cameron (23 July 2008). "Somali women demand government action on legal drug". The Australian. https://web.archive.org/web/20080729021447/http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,24063019-5006785,00.html. Retrieved on
    ۵ اگست ۲۰۰۸. 
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