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نوبل انعام جیتو یہودی

آزاد انسائیکلوپیڈیا، وکیپیڈیا توں

ہن تک نوبل انعام جیتو شخصیتاں چوں 170 یہودی اس انعام نوں وصول کر چکے نیں جو کہ مجموعی طور اتے نوبل انعام جتل آلےآں دا 20 فیصد بن دے نیں جدونکہ دنیا چ یہودی پیروکاراں دی آبادی مجموعی طور اتے صرف0.2% اے۔(یا پنچ سو وچوں اک یہودی اے)مجموعی طور اتے یہودی شخصیتاں نے معاشیات دے شعبے چ 41فیصد ادویات چ 28 فیصد فزکس چ 26 فیصد، 19 فیصد کیمیاء چ13 فیصد ساہت چ جدونکہ 9 فیصد امن دے شعبے چ لئے نیں۔ سب توں پہلا یہودی شخص ایڈولف وون بئیر سی جے نے 1905 چ کیمیاء چ نوبل انعام وصول کیتا۔


ساہت

[سودھو]
سال انعام یافتہ ملک وجہ
1910 پال ہیسی[۱][۲] جرمنی "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[۳]
1927 ہنری برگساں[۲] فرانس "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[۴]
1958 بریس پاسترناک[۲]> Soviet Union "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[۵]
1966 سیمویل یوسف اگنون[۲] Israel "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[۶]
نیلی سکہس[۲] Sweden "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[۶]
1976 سال بیلو[۲] امریکا "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[۷]
1978 آئزک بشوس سنگر[۲] امریکا "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[۸]
1981 الیاس کینٹی[۲] برطانیہ "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[۹]
1987 جوزف برودسکی[۲] امریکا "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[۱۰]
1991 ناڈینگورڈیمر[۲] South Africa "who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity"[۱۱]
2002 امری کرٹرز[۲][۱۲][۱۳] Hungary "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[۱۴]
2004 الفرڈ جیلنک[۱۵] Austria "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[۱۶]
2005 ہیرلڈ پنٹر[۲][۱۷] برطانیہ "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[۱۸]
2014 پیتریک مودیانو[۱۹]

[۲۰]

France "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"[۲۱]

کیمیاء

[سودھو]
سال انعام یافتہ ملک وجہ
1905 ایڈولف وان بایر[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵] جرمنی "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[۲۶]
1906 آنری موئساں[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵][۲۷] France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[۲۸]
1910 اوتو والاخ[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵] جرمنی "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[۲۹]
1915 رچرڈ ولسٹیٹر[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵] جرمنی "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[۳۰]
1918 فرٹز ہیبر[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵][۳۱] جرمنی "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[۳۲]
1943 جارج دی ہیوسی[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵] Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[۳۳]
1961 Melvin Calvin ملون کیلون[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵] امریکا "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[۳۴]
1962 میکس پیروٹز[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵][۳۵] برطانیہ "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[۳۶]
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen کرسچن بی اینفنسن[۲۲][۲۵][۳۷] امریکا "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[۳۸]
ولیم ہورڈ سٹین[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵] امریکا "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[۳۸]
1977 فائل:Ilya Prigogine.jpg الیا پرگوگین[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵][۳۹] Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[۴۰]
1979 فائل:William Howard Stein.jpg ہربرٹ سی براون[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵][۴۱] امریکا "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[۴۲]
1980 پاول برگ[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵][۴۳] امریکا "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[۴۴]
Walter Gilbert والٹر گلبرٹ[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵] امریکا "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[۴۴]
1981 روالڈ ہوف مین[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵] امریکا "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[۴۵]
1982 ارون کلگ[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵] برطانیہ "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[۴۶]
1985 Jerome Karle جیروم کارلی[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵][۴۷][۴۸][۴۹] امریکا "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[۵۰]
Herbert Hauptman ہربرٹ اے ہاوپٹمین[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵][۵۱][۵۲][۵۳][۵۴] امریکا
1989 سڈنی آلٹ مین[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵] Canada
امریکا
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[۵۵]
1992 روڈلف اے مارکس[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵] امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[۵۶]
1994 George Andrew Olah جارج انڈریو اولاح[۱][۲۲][۲۵] Hungary "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[۵۷]
1996 ہیری کروٹو[۲۵][۵۸] England "for the discovery of fullerenes"[۵۹]
1998 Walter Kohn والٹر کوہن[۲۲][۲۵][۵۱][۶۰][۶۱] امریکا "for his development of the density-functional theory"[۶۲]
2000 الان جے ہیگر[۲۲][۲۳][۲۵][۶۳] امریکا "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"[۶۴]
2004 ارون چیکونور[۲۵][۶۵][۶۶] اسرائیل "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[۶۷]
اورامہ[۲۵][۶۵] Israel
ارون روس[۲۵][۶۸][۶۹] امریکا
2006 راجر ڈی کورنبرگ[۶۵][۷۰][۷۱] امریکا "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[۷۲][۷۳]
2008 مارٹن کالفی[۷۴] امریکا "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".[۷۵]
2009 ادا یوناتھ[۶۵] Israel "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"[۷۶]
2011 ڈان سیکٹ مین[۷۷] Israel "for the discovery of quasicrystals"[۷۸]
2012 رابرٹ لیفکووٹز[۷۹] امریکا "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"[۸۰]
2013 اریا وارشل[۸۱][۸۲] Israel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"[۸۳]
مائیکل لیوٹ[۸۱][۸۲] امریکا, Britain, Israel [۸۴][۸۵]
مارٹن کارپلس[۸۱][۸۲] امریکا, Austria [۸۶]
سال وصول کنندہ ملک وجہ
1908 الئی مٹینیکو[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] روس "in recognition of their work on immunity"[۸۸]
پاول اہرلچ[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] جرمنی
1914 رابرٹ برانی[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] Austria-Hungary "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[۸۹]
1922 اوٹو فرٹز مئیر ہوف[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] جرمنی "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[۹۰]
1930 کارل لینڈ سٹینر[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[۹۱]
1931 اوٹو ہنرچ وار برگ[۲۴][۲۵] جرمنی "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[۹۲]
1936 اوٹو لوئی[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] Austria "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[۹۳]
1944 جوزف ارلینگر[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷][۹۴] امریکا "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[۹۵]
ہر برٹ سپنسر گیسر[۲۴][۲۵]
1945 ارنسٹ بوری چین[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] برطانیہ "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[۹۶]
1946 فائل:Hermann Joseph Muller.jpg ہرمن جوزف میولر[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of ایکس شعاع irradiation"[۹۷]
1947 گرٹی کوری[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[۹۸]
1950 Tadeusz Reichstein[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] Switzerland / Poland "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[۹۹]
1952 عیل مین والکمین[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[۱۰۰]
1953 ہنس ایڈلف کرب[۲۴][۲۵][۵۱][۸۷] برطانیہ "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[۱۰۱]
فرٹز البرٹ لیپ مین[۸۷] امریکا "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[۱۰۱]
1958 جیشوا لیڈربرگ[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[۱۰۲]
1959 آرتھر کورن برگ[۲۴][۲۵][۴۷][۸۷] امریکا "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[۱۰۳]
1964 کونارڈ ایمل بلوک[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷][۱۰۴] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[۱۰۵]
1965 فرانکیوس جیکب[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[۱۰۶]
انڈری مائیکل لوف[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷]
1967 جارج والڈ[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[۱۰۷]
1968 مارشل وارن نارنبرگ[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[۱۰۸]
1969 سیلواڈور لوریا[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] امریکا, Italy "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[۱۰۹]
1970 جیولیوس ایکزل روڈ[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[۱۱۰]
برنارڈ کٹز[۲۴][۲۵][۸۷] برطانیہ
1972 گیرالڈ ایڈر مین[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[۱۱۱]
1975 ڈیوڈ بلٹی مور[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۱۱۲]
ہوورڈ مارٹن ٹیمن[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا
1976 باروچ سیمیول بلوم برگ[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[۱۱۳]
1977 انڈریو شیلی[۲۵][۸۷][۱۱۴][۱۱۵] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[۱۱۶]
روزالن سوسمین یالو[۲۵][۴۳][۸۷] امریکا "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[۱۱۶]
1978 ڈینئیل نیتھن[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[۱۱۷]
1980 باروخ بن الصراف[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[۱۱۸]
1984 سیسر میلسٹین[۲۵][۴۳][۸۷] Argentina
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[۱۱۹]
1985 مائیکل سٹاورٹ براون[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[۱۲۰]
جوزف گولڈ سٹین[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا
1986 Stanley Cohen[۲۵][۴۳][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries of growth factors"[۱۲۱]
ریٹالیوی -مونٹلسینی[۲۵][۸۷][۱۲۲] Italy
1988 گرٹروڈ بی. الیون[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[۱۲۳]
1989 ہیرالڈ ای. ورمس[۲۵][۴۳][۸۷] امریکا "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[۱۲۴]
1994 الفرڈ جی گلمین[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[۱۲۵]
مارٹن روڈبل[۲۵][۸۷]
1997 سٹینلی بی پروسینر[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for his discovery of prions – a new biological principle of infection"[۱۲۶]
1998 رابرٹ فرشگوٹ[۲۵][۵۱][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[۱۲۷]
2000 پاول گرین گارڈ[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[۱۲۸]
ارک کینڈل[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا
2002 سڈنی برینر[۲۵][۸۷] برطانیہ "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[۱۲۹]
ایچ رابرٹ ہروٹز[۲۵][۸۷] امریکا
2004 رچرڈ اکزل[۲۵][۸۷][۹۴][۱۳۰] امریکا "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[۱۳۱]
2006 انڈریو فائر[۸۷] امریکا "for his discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[۱۳۲]
2011 رالف ایم. سٹین مین[۷۷][۸۷][۱۳۳][۱۳۴][۱۳۵] Canada for "his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"[۱۳۶]
بروس بیوٹلر[۷۷][۸۷][۱۳۷] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
2013 جیمز روتھ مین[۸۱][۱۳۸][۱۳۹] امریکا for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۱۴۰]
رینڈی شیک مین[۸۱][۱۳۸][۱۳۹] امریکا
سال وجہ ملک وجہ
1907 البرٹ اے مچلسن[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] امریکا "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[۱۴۲]
1908 گبریل لیپمین[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[۱۴۳]
1921 البرٹ آئنسٹائن[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱][۱۴۴] جرمنی "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[۱۴۵]
1922 نیلز بوہر[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[۱۴۶]
1925 جیمز فرانک[۲۳][۱۴۱] جرمنی "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an برقیہ upon an atom"[۱۴۷]
Gustav Hertz[۲۳][۲۴] جرمنی
1943 اوٹو سٹرن[۲۳][۱۴۱] امریکا "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[۱۴۸]
1944 ازیڈور ائیزک ربی[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] امریکا "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[۱۴۹]
1945 Wolfgang Pauli[۱۴۱][۱۵۰] Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[۱۵۱]
1952 فلکس بلوک[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] امریکا "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[۱۵۲]
1954 میکس بورن[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] برطانیہ "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[۱۵۳]
1958 الوا فرانک[۱۴۱] Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[۱۵۴]
1959 Emilio Gino Segrè[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] Italy "for their discovery of the antiproton"[۱۵۵]
1960 ڈونالڈ اے گلیسر[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] امریکا "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[۱۵۶]
1961 رابرٹ ہوفسٹڈلر[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] امریکا "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[۱۵۷]
1962 لیو لینڈاؤ[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱][۱۵۸] Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[۱۵۹][۱۶۰]
1963 یوجین پاول وگنر[۱۴۱][۱۶۱] امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[۱۶۲]
1965 رچرڈ فلپ فے مین[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱][۱۶۳] امریکا "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[۱۶۴]
جولیان سکونگر[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱] امریکا
1967 ہنس بیتھ[۱۴۱] امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[۱۶۵]
1969 ماری گیل مین[۲۳][۲۴][۱۴۱][۱۶۶] امریکا "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[۱۶۷]
1971 فائل:Dennis Gabor.jpg ڈینس گبور[۲۳][۱۴۱] برطانیہ "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[۱۶۸]
1972 لیون کوپر[۱۴۱][۱۴۱][۱۶۹][۱۷۰] امریکا "for his jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[۱۷۱]
1973 برائن ڈیوڈ جوزف سن[۲۳] برطانیہ "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[۱۷۲]
1975 بن روئے مٹل سن[۲۳][۱۴۱] Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[۱۷۳]
1976 برٹن رچر[۲۳][۱۴۱] امریکا "for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[۱۷۴]
1978 ارنو الن پنزاس[۲۳][۱۴۱] امریکا "for his discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[۱۷۵]
1979 شیلڈن لی گلاشو[۲۳][۱۴۱] امریکا "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[۱۷۶]
سٹیون وینبرگ[۲۳][۱۴۱] امریکا
1987 کارل ایلکزینڈر میولر[۱۴۱] Switzerland "for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[۱۷۷]
1988 لیون ایم لیڈر مین[۲۳][۴۳][۱۴۱] امریکا "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[۱۷۸]
ملون سکوارٹز[۲۳][۱۴۱] امریکا
جیک سٹین برگر[۲۳][۱۴۱] امریکا
1990 جیروم آئیزک فرائڈ مین[۱۴۱] امریکا "for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[۱۷۹]
1992 جیرج چارپک[۱۴۱] France / Poland "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[۱۸۰]
1995 مارٹن لیوس پیرل[۱۴۱] امریکا "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[۱۸۱]
فریڈرک رینز[۱۴۱] امریکا "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[۱۸۱]
1996 David Morris Lee[۱][۱۴۱] امریکا "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[۱۸۲]
ڈوگلاس اوشروف[۱] امریکا
1997 کلاؤڈ کوہن-ٹناڈجی[۱۴۱] France "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[۱۸۳]
2000 زورس ایونوچ الفرو[۱][۱۴۱] Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[۱۸۴]
2003 الیکزی الیکزیوچ ابریکوسو[۱۴۱] Russia
امریکا
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[۱۸۵]
وائٹلی گنزبرگ[۱۴۱] Russia
2004 ڈیوڈ جے گروس[۶۵][۱۴۱][۱۸۶] امریکا "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[۱۸۷]
ہگ ڈیوڈ پیولٹزر[۱۴۱] امریکا
2005 روئے جے گلوبر[۱۴۱] امریکا "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[۱۸۸]
2011 ایڈم ریس[۷۷][۱۴۱][۱۸۹][۱۹۰][۱۹۱] امریکا "for providing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating"[۱۸۸]
ساول پرلموتر[۷۷][۱۴۱][۱۹۲][۱۹۳] امریکا
2012 سرگ ہروچ[۱۹۴] France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"[۱۸۸]
2013 فرانکیوس انگلرٹ[۸۱][۱۹۵][۱۹۶][۱۹۷] Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[۱۹۸]

امن

[سودھو]
سال وصول کنندہ ملک وجہ
1911 ٹوبیاس مائیکل کارل اسر[۱۹۹] The Netherlands "Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"[۲۰۰]
الفرڈ ہرمن فرائڈ[۲۰۱] Austria "Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"[۲۰۰]
1968 رینے کاسن France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[۲۰۲]
1973 Henry A. Kissinger[۲۰۳] امریکا "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"[۲۰۴][۲۰۵]
1978 مناخم بیگن[۲۰۶] اسرائیل "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[۲۰۷]
1986 ایلائ وائسل[۲۰۸] امریکا "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[۲۰۹]
1994 اسحاق رابین Israel "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[۲۱۰]
شمعون پیریز Israel
1995 جازف راٹبلاٹ برطانیہ
Poland
"for his efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[۲۱۱]

معاشیات

[سودھو]
سال وصول کنندہ ملک وجہ
1970 پاؤل سیمیولسن[۲۱۲][۲۱۳] امریکہ "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

[۲۱۴]

1971 سائمن کزٹس[۲۱۲][۲۱۵] امریکہ "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[۲۱۶]
1972 کینتھ ارو[۲۱۲][۲۱۷] امریکہ "for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"[۲۱۸]
1973 واسلےلیونٹیف[۲۱۲] Russia
جرمنی
امریکہ
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"[۲۱۹]
1975 لیونڈکانٹروچ[۲۱۲] Soviet Union "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[۲۲۰]
1976 ملٹن فریڈمان[۲۱۲][۲۱۷][۲۲۱] امریکہ "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"[۲۲۲]
1978 ہربرٹ اے۔ سائمن[۲۱۲][۲۲۳] امریکہ "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"[۲۲۴]
1980 لاؤرنس کلائین[۲۱۲][۲۲۳] امریکہ "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"[۲۲۵]
1985 فرانکو موڈگ لیامی[۲۱۲][۲۱۳] Italy
امریکہ
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"[۲۲۶]
1987 رابرٹ سولو[۲۱۲] امریکہ "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth""[۲۲۷]
1990 ہیری مارکوٹز[۲۱۲][۲۲۳] امریکہ "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics""[۲۲۸]
مرٹن ملر[۲۱۲][۲۲۳] امریکا
1992 گارے بکر[۲۱۲][۲۲۳] امریکہ "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour""[۲۲۹]
1993 رابرٹ فوگل[۲۱۲][۲۲۳] امریکہ "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[۲۳۰]
1994 جون ہارسانئے[۲۱۲][۲۲۳][۲۳۱] Hungary "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"[۲۳۲]
1997 میرون سکولز[۲۱۲][۲۲۳][۲۳۳] Canada "for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"[۲۳۴][۲۳۵]
2001 جوزف اسٹگلیز[۲۱۲][۲۲۳] امریکہ "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[۲۳۶]
جارج اکرلوف[۲۳۷] امریکہ
2002 ڈینئیل کہنیمن[۲۱۲][۲۲۳] Israel
امریکہ
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"[۲۳۸]
2005 رابرٹ اومن[۲۱۲][۲۳۹] Israel
امریکہ
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"[۲۴۰]
2007 لیونڈ ہروکز[۲۱۲][۲۴۱][۲۴۲][۲۴۳][۲۴۴] امریکا
Poland
"For having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"[۲۴۵]
ارک ماسکن[۲۱۲][۲۴۴][۲۴۶] امریکہ
روگر مائرسن[۲۱۲][۲۴۴] امریکہ
2008 پاول کرگمین[۲۱۲][۲۴۷] امریکہ "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"[۲۴۸]
2010 پیٹر ڈائمنڈ[۲۴۹][۲۵۰] امریکہ "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[۲۵۱]
2012 الون اے روتھ[۲۵۲] امریکہ "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design" [۲۵۳]

جنہان نوںانعام وصول کرن توں روکیا گیا

[سودھو]

بریس پاسترناک, a Russian Jew, winner of the 1958 prize for literature, initially accepted the award, but—after intense pressure from Soviet authorities—subsequently declined it.[۲۵۴][۲۵۵][۲۵۶][۲۵۷]

بولیورڈ (اک تختی ) انعام یافتہ

[سودھو]

اسرائیل چ اک گلی چ تختی لگی اے جس چ تمام یہودی نوبل انعام یافتگان دے نان کندہ نیں اس دا مقصد انہاں تمام حضرات نوں خراج تحسین پیش کرنا اے۔

The Israeli town of ریشون لضیون has a street in it dedicated to honoring all Jewish Nobel laureates. The street, called Tayelet Hatnei Pras Nobel (Nobel Laureates Boulevard/Promenade), has a monument with attached plaque for each Nobel laureate.[۵۴]

ہور ویکھو

[سودھو]

حوالے

[سودھو]
  1. ۱.۰ ۱.۱ ۱.۲ ۱.۳ ۱.۴ Schreiber, Mordecai; Schiff, Alvin I.; Klenicki, Leon, eds. (2003), "Jewish Nobel Prize Winners", The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia, Schreiber Publishing, p. 198, ISBN 1-887563-77-6 
  2. ۲.۰۰ ۲.۰۱ ۲.۰۲ ۲.۰۳ ۲.۰۴ ۲.۰۵ ۲.۰۶ ۲.۰۷ ۲.۰۸ ۲.۰۹ ۲.۱۰ ۲.۱۱ "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Literature". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
  3. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
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  8. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  9. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
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  11. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  12. Segel, Harold B. (2008). The Columbia Literary History of Eastern Europe Since 1945. Columbia University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-231-13306-7"... the few Hungarian writers who have attempted to deal with Hungary's role in the ware and the fate of the Hungarian Jewish population have been mostly Hungarian Jews. Certainly the best known, due to his receipt of the coveted Nobel Prize in Literature in 2002, is Imre Kertész (b. 1929)".
  13. Rubin Suleiman, Susan; Forgács, Éva (eds) (2003). Contemporary Jewish Writing in Hungary: An Anthology. University of Nebraska Press. p. xlvi.
  14. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  15. Dagmar C. G. Lorenz (2007). Keepers of the Motherland: German texts by Jewish women writers. University of Nebraska Press, 251–252. ISBN 978-0-8032-2917-4. “Jewish women's writing likewise employs satirical and grotesque elements when depicting non-Jews... Some do so pointedly, such as Ilse Aichinger, Elfriede Gerstl, and Elifriede Jelinek... Jelinek resumed the techniques of the Jewish interwar satirists... Jelinek stresses her affinity to Karl Krauss and the Jewish Cabaret of the interwar era... She claims her own Jewish identity as the daughter of a Holocaust victim, her father, thereby suggesting that there is a continuity of Vienna's Jewish tradition (Berka 1993, 137f.; Gilman 1995, 3).” 
  16. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  17. Billington, Michael (2007). Harold Pinter. London: Faber and Faber. p. 2. ISBN 0-571-23476-3.
  18. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
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  20. Patrick Modiano’s ‘Suspended Sentences’. نیو یارک ٹائمز website.
  21. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
  22. ۲۲.۰۰ ۲۲.۰۱ ۲۲.۰۲ ۲۲.۰۳ ۲۲.۰۴ ۲۲.۰۵ ۲۲.۰۶ ۲۲.۰۷ ۲۲.۰۸ ۲۲.۰۹ ۲۲.۱۰ ۲۲.۱۱ ۲۲.۱۲ ۲۲.۱۳ ۲۲.۱۴ ۲۲.۱۵ ۲۲.۱۶ ۲۲.۱۷ ۲۲.۱۸ ۲۲.۱۹ ۲۲.۲۰ ۲۲.۲۱ ۲۲.۲۲ "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Chemistry". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  23. ۲۳.۰۰ ۲۳.۰۱ ۲۳.۰۲ ۲۳.۰۳ ۲۳.۰۴ ۲۳.۰۵ ۲۳.۰۶ ۲۳.۰۷ ۲۳.۰۸ ۲۳.۰۹ ۲۳.۱۰ ۲۳.۱۱ ۲۳.۱۲ ۲۳.۱۳ ۲۳.۱۴ ۲۳.۱۵ ۲۳.۱۶ ۲۳.۱۷ ۲۳.۱۸ ۲۳.۱۹ ۲۳.۲۰ ۲۳.۲۱ ۲۳.۲۲ ۲۳.۲۳ ۲۳.۲۴ ۲۳.۲۵ ۲۳.۲۶ ۲۳.۲۷ ۲۳.۲۸ ۲۳.۲۹ ۲۳.۳۰ ۲۳.۳۱ ۲۳.۳۲ ۲۳.۳۳ ۲۳.۳۴ ۲۳.۳۵ ۲۳.۳۶ ۲۳.۳۷ ۲۳.۳۸ ۲۳.۳۹ ۲۳.۴۰ ۲۳.۴۱ ۲۳.۴۲ ۲۳.۴۳ ۲۳.۴۴ ۲۳.۴۵ ۲۳.۴۶ Wentzel Van Huyssteen (2003). Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, Volume 2. MacMillan Reference USA. p. 493.
  24. ۲۴.۰۰ ۲۴.۰۱ ۲۴.۰۲ ۲۴.۰۳ ۲۴.۰۴ ۲۴.۰۵ ۲۴.۰۶ ۲۴.۰۷ ۲۴.۰۸ ۲۴.۰۹ ۲۴.۱۰ ۲۴.۱۱ ۲۴.۱۲ ۲۴.۱۳ ۲۴.۱۴ ۲۴.۱۵ ۲۴.۱۶ ۲۴.۱۷ ۲۴.۱۸ ۲۴.۱۹ ۲۴.۲۰ ۲۴.۲۱ ۲۴.۲۲ ۲۴.۲۳ ۲۴.۲۴ ۲۴.۲۵ ۲۴.۲۶ ۲۴.۲۷ ۲۴.۲۸ ۲۴.۲۹ ۲۴.۳۰ ۲۴.۳۱ ۲۴.۳۲ ۲۴.۳۳ ۲۴.۳۴ ۲۴.۳۵ ۲۴.۳۶ ۲۴.۳۷ ۲۴.۳۸ ۲۴.۳۹ ۲۴.۴۰ ۲۴.۴۱ ۲۴.۴۲ ۲۴.۴۳ ۲۴.۴۴ ۲۴.۴۵ Feuer, Lewis Samuel (1995). Varieties of Scientific Experience: Emotive Aims in Scientific Hypotheses (citing Encylopaedia Judaica). Transaction Publishers. p. 402. ISBN 978-1-56000-223-9
  25. ۲۵.۰۰ ۲۵.۰۱ ۲۵.۰۲ ۲۵.۰۳ ۲۵.۰۴ ۲۵.۰۵ ۲۵.۰۶ ۲۵.۰۷ ۲۵.۰۸ ۲۵.۰۹ ۲۵.۱۰ ۲۵.۱۱ ۲۵.۱۲ ۲۵.۱۳ ۲۵.۱۴ ۲۵.۱۵ ۲۵.۱۶ ۲۵.۱۷ ۲۵.۱۸ ۲۵.۱۹ ۲۵.۲۰ ۲۵.۲۱ ۲۵.۲۲ ۲۵.۲۳ ۲۵.۲۴ ۲۵.۲۵ ۲۵.۲۶ ۲۵.۲۷ ۲۵.۲۸ ۲۵.۲۹ ۲۵.۳۰ ۲۵.۳۱ ۲۵.۳۲ ۲۵.۳۳ ۲۵.۳۴ ۲۵.۳۵ ۲۵.۳۶ ۲۵.۳۷ ۲۵.۳۸ ۲۵.۳۹ ۲۵.۴۰ ۲۵.۴۱ ۲۵.۴۲ ۲۵.۴۳ ۲۵.۴۴ ۲۵.۴۵ ۲۵.۴۶ ۲۵.۴۷ ۲۵.۴۸ ۲۵.۴۹ ۲۵.۵۰ ۲۵.۵۱ ۲۵.۵۲ ۲۵.۵۳ ۲۵.۵۴ ۲۵.۵۵ ۲۵.۵۶ ۲۵.۵۷ ۲۵.۵۸ ۲۵.۵۹ ۲۵.۶۰ ۲۵.۶۱ ۲۵.۶۲ ۲۵.۶۳ ۲۵.۶۴ ۲۵.۶۵ ۲۵.۶۶ ۲۵.۶۷ ۲۵.۶۸ ۲۵.۶۹ ۲۵.۷۰ ۲۵.۷۱ ۲۵.۷۲ ۲۵.۷۳ ۲۵.۷۴ ۲۵.۷۵ J. Rogers Hollingsworth (2007), "High Cognitive Complexity and the Making of Major Scientific Discoveries", in Arnaud Sales, Marcel Fournier (eds.). Knowledge, Communication and CreativitySage Studies in International Sociology, SAGE, 2007, p. 136. ISBN 9780761943075
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  27. Joan Comay (1995). Who's who in Jewish history: after the period of the Old Testament. Routledge, 264. ISBN 0-415-12583-9. “Moissan, whose mother was Jewish, [...]” 
  28. Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
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  31. Leroy, Francis (2003). A Century of Nobel Prizes Recipients: Chemistry, Rhysics, and Medicine. CRC Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8247-0876-4
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  35. Georgina Ferry (2008). Max Perutz and the secret of life. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2. ISBN 0-7011-7695-4. 
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  38. ۳۸.۰ ۳۸.۱ Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1/ar at line 3440: attempt to call field 'set_selected_modules' (a nil value).
    • Radu Balescu. "Ilya Prigogine: His Life, His Work", in Stuart Alan Rice (2007). Special volume in memory of Ilya Prigogine, John Wiley and Sons. p. 2. "In the history of science, there are few examples of such a flashing and immense ascent as that of Ilya Prigogine (Fig. 1). The little Russian Jewish immigrant arrived in Brussels at the age of 12..."
    • Magnus Ramage, Karen Shipp (2009). Systems Thinkers. Springer. p. 277. "Prigogine was born in January 1917 in Moscow... His family 'had a difficult relationship with the new regime' (Prigogine 1977), being both Jewish and merchants...
    • Jean Maruani, Roland Lefebvre, Erkki Brändas (eds.) (2003). Advanced Topics in Theoretical Chemical Physics, Springer, p. xv. "Ilya Prigogine was born on January 25, 1917, in Moscow, Russia, the second boy in a middle-class, Jewish family."
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  40. ہربرٹ سی براون, "Herbert C. Brown", in Tore Frängsmyr, Sture Forsén (1993). Chemistry, 1971–1980. World Scientific. p. 337. "My parents... came to London in 1908 as part of the vast Jewish immigration in the early part of this century."
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  42. ۴۳.۰ ۴۳.۱ ۴۳.۲ ۴۳.۳ ۴۳.۴ ۴۳.۵ Hargittai, István (2003). The Road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists. اوکسفرڈ یونیورسٹی پریس. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-19-860785-4
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  70. Nadan Feldman. "U.S. Nobel laureate: Israel must invest more in higher education". Haaretz. January 13, 2012. "...explains Kornberg, when asked about the values his father instilled in him, and the atmosphere in which he grew up, in a Jewish family in the 1950s."
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    • Janice Arnold (2011-10-12). "Nobel laureate is pride of Sherbrooke Jews". Canadian Jewish News. "Shechtman was one of five Jews, including a former Montrealer, the late Ralph Steinman, to receive the prestigious prize for their scientific endeavours... Steinman and Bruce Beutler... won for their groundbreaking work in discoveries on the immune system. Saul Perlmutter and Adam Riess, both American Jews... won the prize in physics."
    • Looks, Elka (2011-10-05). "Jews make strong showing among 2011 Nobel Prize winners". Haaretz. "Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman has made headlines at home for winning the 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry, but he is not the only Jewish recipient... Ralph Steinman and Bruce Beutler were awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine for their discoveries on the immune system... Saul Perlmutter and Adam G. Riess, both American Jews, are two of the three Nobel Prize in physics winners... So far, five of the seven Nobel Prize winners this year are Jewish..."
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  80. ۸۱.۰ ۸۱.۱ ۸۱.۲ ۸۱.۳ ۸۱.۴ ۸۱.۵ A remarkable week for Jewish Nobel Prize winners Archived 2021-10-27 at the وے بیک مشینThe Jewish Chronicle, October 10, 2013. "No less than six Jewish scientists were awarded Nobel Prizes this week... Belgian-born Francois Englert won the accolade in physics... Also this week, two American Jews were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine [...] James Rothman and Randy Schekman... Meanwhile, three Jewish-American scientists, Arieh Warshel, Michael Levitt and Martin Karplus, shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry... Karplus [...] fled the Nazi occupation of Austria as a child in 1938.
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  84. "Fellow winner Michael Levitt, a South Africa-born professor, also holds Israeli citizenship.", The Times of Israel, October 9, 2013.
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  86. ۸۷.۰۰ ۸۷.۰۱ ۸۷.۰۲ ۸۷.۰۳ ۸۷.۰۴ ۸۷.۰۵ ۸۷.۰۶ ۸۷.۰۷ ۸۷.۰۸ ۸۷.۰۹ ۸۷.۱۰ ۸۷.۱۱ ۸۷.۱۲ ۸۷.۱۳ ۸۷.۱۴ ۸۷.۱۵ ۸۷.۱۶ ۸۷.۱۷ ۸۷.۱۸ ۸۷.۱۹ ۸۷.۲۰ ۸۷.۲۱ ۸۷.۲۲ ۸۷.۲۳ ۸۷.۲۴ ۸۷.۲۵ ۸۷.۲۶ ۸۷.۲۷ ۸۷.۲۸ ۸۷.۲۹ ۸۷.۳۰ ۸۷.۳۱ ۸۷.۳۲ ۸۷.۳۳ ۸۷.۳۴ ۸۷.۳۵ ۸۷.۳۶ ۸۷.۳۷ ۸۷.۳۸ ۸۷.۳۹ ۸۷.۴۰ ۸۷.۴۱ ۸۷.۴۲ ۸۷.۴۳ ۸۷.۴۴ ۸۷.۴۵ ۸۷.۴۶ ۸۷.۴۷ ۸۷.۴۸ ۸۷.۴۹ ۸۷.۵۰ "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Biomedical Sciences". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
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  93. ۹۴.۰ ۹۴.۱ Fred Skolnik, Michael Berenbaum (eds.) 2007. Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 13. Macmillan Reference USA / Keter Publishing House. p. 733. "Jewish scientists have participated in this problem from the early days of Joseph Erlanger's research on nerve conduction to Richard Axel's dissection of the pathways relevant to olfactory function."
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