نوبل انعام جیتو مسیحی شخصیتاں دی لسٹ

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مسیحی نوبل انعام جیتو بلحاظ شعبہ[لکھو]

فزکس[لکھو]

سال انعام یافتہ دیس فرقہ وجہ
1901 WilhelmRöntgen.JPG ولیم رونٹگین جرمنی رومن کیتھولک[۱] "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"
1902 H A Lorentz (Nobel).jpg ہنڈرک لورنٹز نیدرلینڈ پروٹسٹنٹ[۲] "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by his researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"[۳]
Pieter Zeeman.jpg پیڑ زیمین نیدرلینڈ Dutch Reformed Church[۴] "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena
1903 Portrait of Antoine-Henri Becquerel.jpg ہنری بیکرویل فرانس رومن کیتھولک

[۵]

"for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"[۶]
1904 John William Strutt.jpg جان ولیم سٹرٹ برطانیہ Anglican[۷][۸] "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[۹]
1905 Phillipp Lenard in 1900.jpg فلپ لینارڈ آسٹریا ہنگری
جرمنی
کرسچئین[۱۰] "for his work on cathode rays"[۱۱][۱۲]
1906 J.J Thomson.jpg جے جے تھامسن برطانیہ Anglican[۱۳] "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[۱۴]
1909 Guglielmo Marconi.jpg گُگلیلمو مارکونی(مارکونی) اٹلی رومن کیتھولک[۱۵] "for his contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[۱۶]
1914 Max von Laue 1914.jpg میکس وون لیو جرمنی کرسچئین[۱۷][۱۸][۱۹] "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[۲۰] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1915 Wh-bragg.jpg ولیم ہنری براگ برطانیہ کرسچئین[۲۱][۲۲][۲۳] "For his services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays",[۲۴] an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
Wl-bragg.jpg ولیم لاورنس براگ آسٹریلیا

برطانیہ

کرسچئین
1917 Charles Glover Barkla.jpg چارلس گلور بارکالا برطانیہ Methodist[۲۵][۲۶][۲۷] "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[۲۸] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1918 Max Planck 1933.jpg میکس پلانک جرمنی Raised Lutheran, later in life, Planck's views on God were that of a deist[lower-alpha ۱][۲۹] "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[۳۰]
1919 Johannes Stark.jpg جوہنس سٹارک جرمنی کرسچئین[۳۱] "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[۳۲]
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg رابرٹ انڈریو ملکین امریکا کرسچئین[۳۳][۳۴][۳۵][۳۶] He dealt with this in his Terry Lectures at Yale in 1926–7, published as Evolution in Science and Religion.[۳۷] "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[۳۸]
1925 Gustav Hertz.jpg گستاف لوڈوگ ہرٹز جرمنی Lutheran[۳۹] "for his discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[۴۰]
1927 Arthur Compton.jpg آرتھر کومپٹون امریکا Presbyterian[۴۱][۴۲] "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[۴۳]
1932 Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg.jpg ورنر ہیزنبرگ جرمنی Lutheran[۴۴][۴۵] "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[۴۶]
1936 Hess.jpg وکٹر فرانسس ہیس آسٹریا کرسچئین[۴۷][۴۸] He wrote on the topic of science and religion in his article "My Faith".[۴۹] "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[۵۰]
1937 George Paget Thomson.jpg جارج پاگٹ تھامسن برطانیہ کرسچئین "for his experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[۵۱]
1938 Enrico Fermi 1943-49 140x190.jpg انریکو فرمی اٹلی Raised رومن کیتھولک, then become an agnostic "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[۵۲]
1945 Wolfgang Pauli ETH-Bib Portr 01042.jpg ولف گینگ پاولی آسٹریا Raised رومن کیتھولک[۵۳] "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[۵۴]
1951 جوہن کوکروفٹ برطانیہ کرسچئین "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[۵۵]
Ernest Walton.jpg ارنسٹ والٹن آئرلینڈ Methodist[۵۶]
1952 Edward Mills Purcell.jpg ایڈوارڑملس پرسل امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ "for his development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[۵۷]
1953 Zernike.jpg فرٹز زرنیک Netherlands پروٹسٹنٹ "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[۵۸]
1954 Max Born.jpg میکس بورن جرمنی
برطانیہ
Lutheran[۵۹] "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[۶۰]
Bothe.jpg والٹتھر بوتھ مغربی جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[۶۰]
1955 Willis Lamb 1955.jpg ولس لیمب امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[۶۱]
Polykarp Kusch.jpg پولی کارپ کوشچ امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[۶۱]
1958 Ilya Frank.jpg الوا فرانک سویت یونین Russian Orthodox (he is also from Jewish descended) for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[۶۲]
1963 Maria Goeppert-Mayer.jpg ماریہ جیوپرٹ مئیر امریکا کرسچئین[۶۳] "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Jensen.jpg جے ہنس ڈی ہنسن مغربی جرمنی کرسچئین
1964 75px چارلس ہارڈ ٹاونس امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ (United Church of Christ)[۶۴] "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle"[۶۵]
1971 Nobel prize medal grey.png ڈینس گبور ہنگریبرطانیہ Raised a پروٹسٹنٹ,[۶۶] but he considered himself agnostic[۶۷] "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[۶۸]
1974 Nobel prize medal grey.png انٹونی ہیوش برطانیہ کرسچئین[۶۹] "for his pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[۷۰]
1980 James-cronin.jpg جیمز واٹسن کرونن امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ[۷۱][۷۲] "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[۷۳]
1984 Carlo Rubbia 2012.jpg کارلو روبیا اٹلی رومن کیتھولک "for his decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[۷۴]
1985 Klausvonklitzing.jpg کلاوس ون کلٹزنگ مغربی جرمنی رومن کیتھولک "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[۷۵]
1993 2008JosephTaylor.jpg جوزف ہوٹن ٹیلر امریکا Quaker[۷۶] "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[۷۷]
1996 Douglas Osheroff NSF.jpg ڈوگلاس اوشروف امریکا Lutheran[۷۸] "for his discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[۷۹]
1997 William D. Phillips.jpg ولیم ڈینیل فلپس امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ (United Methodist Church)[۸۰] "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[۸۱]
2002 RiccardoGiacconi.jpg رککارڈو گیاککونی اٹلی
امریکا
رومن کیتھولک "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
2007 Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg پیٹر گرون برگ جرمنی رومن کیتھولک "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[۸۲]

کیمیاء[لکھو]

سال انعام یافتہ ملک فرقہ

وجہ

1901 Vant Hoff.jpg یاکوبس ہینریکوس وانت ہوف نیدرلینڈ پروٹسٹنٹ[۸۳] "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[۸۴]
1902 Убеншвуаншвышь.jpg ہرمن امیل فشر جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ[۸۵][۸۶] "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[۸۷]
1904 William Ramsay.jpg Sir سر ولیم ریمسی برطانیہ پروٹسٹنٹ[۸۸] "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[۸۹]
1905 Adolf von Baeyer (1905).jpg Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer جرمنی Lutheran (from Jewish descent)[۹۰][۹۱][۹۲] "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[۹۳]
1907 Eduard Buchner (Nobel 1907).jpg ایدوارد بوخنر جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[۹۴]
1908 Ernest Rutherford (Nobel).jpg ایرنسٹ ردرفورڈ برطانیہ
نیوزیلینڈ
پروٹسٹنٹ[۹۵][۹۶] "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[۹۷]
1910 Otto Wallach.jpg اوتو والاخ جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ[۹۸] "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[۹۹]
1913 Alfred Werner.jpg الفرڈ ورنر سویٹزلینڈ He was raised as رومن کیتھولک[۱۰۰] "[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry"[۱۰۱]
1918 Fritz Haber.png فرٹز ہیبر جرمنی Converts to پروٹسٹنٹism from Judaism[۱۰۲] "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[۱۰۳]
1920 Walther Nernst.jpg Walther Hermann Nernst جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ[۱۰۴] "[for] his work in thermochemistry"[۱۰۵]
1921 Frederick Soddy.jpg فریڈرک سوڈی برطانیہ پروٹسٹنٹ[۱۰۶] "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[۱۰۷]
1922 Francis William Aston.jpg فرانسسولیم ایسٹون برطانیہ پروٹسٹنٹ "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[۱۰۸]
1923 Fritz Pregl.jpg فرٹز پریگل آسٹریا کرسچئین "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"[۱۰۹]
1925 75px رچرڈ اڈولف زگمونڈی جرمنی / ہنگری پروٹسٹنٹ "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[۱۱۰]
1926 The-svedberg-1.jpg The (Theodor) Svedberg Sweden کرسچئین "for his work on disperse systems"[۱۱۱]
1927 Heinrich Wieland.jpg ہائنرش اٹو ویلینڈ جرمنی کرسچئین "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[۱۱۲]
1928 Windaus.jpg ایڈولف اٹو رائنہولڈ ونڈاؤس جرمنی کرسچئین "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and his connection with the vitamins"[۱۱۳]
1929 ArthurHarden.jpg آرتھر ہارڈن برطانیہ کرسچئین "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[۱۱۴]
Euler-chelpin.jpg ہانز فان سویڈن کرسچئین
1930 Hans Fischer (Nobel).jpg ہانز فشر جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[۱۱۵]
1931 Carl Bosch.jpg کارل بوش جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[۱۱۶]
Bergius.jpg فریڈرخ برجیاس جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ
1934 Urey.jpg Harold Clayton Urey امریکا Church of the Brethren[۱۱۷] "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[۱۱۸]
1937 Karrer.jpg پاول کرر Switzerland کرسچئین "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn ETH-Bib Dia 248-065.jpg رچرڈ کوہن جرمنی رومن کیتھولک "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[۱۱۹]
1939 Leopold Ruzicka ETH-Bib Portr 00239.jpg لیپولڈروزکا سویٹزرلینڈ رومن کیتھولک "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"
1943 George de Hevesy.jpg جارج دی ہیوسی جرمنی رومن کیتھولک [۱۲۰]of Hungarian Jewish descent[۱۲۱] "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[۱۲۲]
1944 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-46019-0001, Otto Hahn.jpg اوٹو ہان جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ[۱۲۳] "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[۱۲۴]
1945 Virtanen.jpg ارٹوری المری ورٹنن Finland پروٹسٹنٹ "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[۱۲۵]
1946 James Batcheller Sumner.jpg جیمز بی سمر امریکا کرسچئین "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[۱۲۶]
John Howard Northrop.jpg جان ہورڈ نورتروپ امریکا کرسچئین "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[۱۲۶]
Wendell Meredith Stanley.jpg ونڈل میریڈتھ سٹینلی امریکا کرسچئین
1947 Robert Robinson organic chemist.jpg Sir Robert Robinson برطانیہ پروٹسٹنٹ "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[۱۲۷]
1949 75px William Francis Giauque امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[۱۲۸]
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels.jpg اوٹوڈیلس مغربی جرمنی کرسچئین "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[۱۲۹]
Kurt Alder Nobel.jpg کرٹ الڈر مغربی جرمنی کرسچئین
1953 Hermann Staudinger.jpg ہرمن سٹاوڈنگر مغربی جرمنی کرسچئین "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[۱۳۰]
1962 Max Perutz.jpg میکس پیروٹز برطانیہ Raised رومن کیتھولک[۱۳۱][۱۳۲][۱۳۳] "for his studies of the structures of globular proteins"[۱۳۴]
1963 Karl Ziegler Nobel.jpg کارل زیگلر مغربی جرمنی Lutheran[۱۳۵] "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[۱۳۶]
Giulio Natta Nobel.jpg گیلیو ناٹا اٹلی رومن کیتھولک
1964 75px ڈوروتھی ہودگکنگ برطانیہ کرسچئین[۱۳۷] "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[۱۳۸]
1969 Odd Hassel.jpg اوڈ ہسل ناروے پروٹسٹنٹ "for his contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[۱۳۹]
1970 Luisfedericoleloir.jpg گرہارڈہرز برگ ارجنٹا‏ئن رومن کیتھولک[۱۴۰] "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and his role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[۱۴۱]
1971 Herzberg,Gerhard 1952 London.jpg لویس ٖفیڈریکو لیلوئر Canada/جرمنی کرسچئین "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[۱۴۲]
1975 Nobel prize medal grey.png John Warcup Cornforth Australia
برطانیہ
Presbyterian[۱۴۳] "for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[۱۴۴]
Vladimir Prelog ETH-Bib Portr 00214.jpg ولادمیر پریلوگ Yugoslavia/Switzerland رومن کیتھولک "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"[۱۴۴]
1984 Nobel prize medal grey.png رابرٹ بروس میریفیلڈ امریکا کرسچئین[۱۴۵] "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[۱۴۶]
1990 E.J.Coreyx240.jpg الیاس جیمز کورے امریکا کرسچئین (راسخُ الا عتقاد کلیسا)[۱۴۷] "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"[۱۴۸]
1995 Mario Molina 1c389 8387.jpg ماریو جے. مولینا Mexico رومن کیتھولک[۱۴۹] "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[۱۵۰]
F. Sherwood Rowland.jpg فرانک شروڈ رولینڈ امریکا کرسچئین
1996 Robert Curl crop 2009 CHAO.jpg Robert F. Curl Jr. امریکا Methodist[۱۵۱] "for their discovery of fullerenes"[۱۵۲]
Richard E. Smalley امریکا کرسچئین[۱۵۳]
2003 Peter Agre.jpg پیٹر اگری امریکا لوتھریت[۱۵۴][۱۵۵][۱۵۶] "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[۱۵۷]
2007 Prof Ertl-Portrait.jpg گر ہارڈ ارٹل جرمنی کرسچئین[۱۵۸] "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[۱۵۹]
2012 Brian Kobilka (649437151).jpg برائن کوبلکا امریکا رومن کیتھولک[۱۶۰] "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"[۱۶۱]
2014 Stefan W Hell.jpg Stefan W. Hell Romania پروٹسٹنٹ[۱۶۲] "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"[۱۶۳]

فعلیات و طب[لکھو]

سال انعام یافتہ ملک فرقہ وجہ
1901 EmilVonBehring.jpg امیل وون بیرنگ جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ[۱۶۴] "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[۱۶۵]
1902 Ronald Ross.jpg Sir رونالڈ روس برطانیہ
بھارت
پروٹسٹنٹ "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[۱۶۶]
1903 Niels ryberg.jpg نیلس ریبرگ فنسن ڈنمارک
(جزائرفارو)
پروٹسٹنٹ "[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[۱۶۷]
1905 RobertKoch cropped.jpg رابرٹ کوچ جرمنی کرسچئین "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"[۱۶۸]
1906 Camillo Golgi nobel.jpg Camillo Golgi اطالیہ رومن کیتھولک "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"[۱۶۹]
Cajal-Restored.jpg سانتیاگو رامون ای کاخال ہسپانیہ رومن کیتھولک[۱۷۰]
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher nobel.jpg ایمل تھیوڈر کوچر سویٹزرلینڈ پروٹسٹنٹ (Moravian Church)[۱۷۱] "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[۱۷۲]
1910 Kossel, Albrecht (1853-1927).jpg البرچٹ کوسل جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"[۱۷۳]
1912 Alexis Carrel 02.jpg الیکسس کارل France رومن کیتھولک[۱۷۴] "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[۱۷۵]
1919 Jules Bordet nobel.jpg جیولس بورڈٹ بلجئیم کرسچئین "for his discoveries relating to immunity"[۱۷۶]
1920 August Krogh Bain 32006.jpg Schack August Steenberg Krogh ڈنمارک پروٹسٹنٹ "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"[۱۷۷]
1923 Fredrick banting.jpg Sir Frederick Grant Banting کینیڈا پروٹسٹنٹ (United Church of Canada)[۱۷۸] "for the discovery of insulin"[۱۷۹]
1924 Willem Einthoven.jpg ویلم ائینتھون The Netherlands پروٹسٹنٹ (Lutheran)[۱۸۰][۱۸۱] "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[۱۸۲]
1926 J Fibiger.jpg جوہنس فائبگر ڈنمارک Lutheran[۱۸۳] "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[۱۸۴]
1928 Jules Nicole.jpg Charles Jules Henri Nicolle France رومن کیتھولک "for his work on typhus"[۱۸۵]
1929 Christiaan Eijkman.jpg کرسچیناجک مین The Netherlands پروٹسٹنٹ "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"[۱۸۶]
Frederick Gowland Hopkins nobel.jpg Sir فریڈرک گولینڈ ہوپکنس برطانیہ Chrisian "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"[۱۸۶]
1930 Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg کارل لینڈ سٹینر آسٹریا converted from یہودیت to رومن کیتھولک in 1890[۱۸۷] "for his discovery of human blood groups"[۱۸۸]
1931 Otto Warburg.jpg اوٹو ہنرچ وار برگ جرمنی کرسچئین[۱۸۹] "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[۱۹۰]
1932 Prof. Charles Scott Sherrington.jpg Sir چارلس سکوٹ شرنگ ٹن برطانیہ Anglican[۱۹۱] "for his discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"[۱۹۲]
1934 George Whipple nobel.jpg George Hoyt Whipple امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ[۱۹۳] "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[۱۹۴]
George Minot nobel.jpg George Richards Minot امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ[۱۹۵]
William P Murphy.jpg William Parry Murphy امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ
1935 Hans Spemann nobel.jpg ہنس سپیمین جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ[۱۹۶] "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[۱۹۷]
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi cropped.jpg Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt مجارستان Calvinist[۱۹۸][۱۹۹] "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[۲۰۰]
1938 Corneille Heymans nobel.jpg Corneille Jean François Heymans Belgium رومن کیتھولک[۲۰۱] "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[۲۰۲]
1939 Gerhard Domagk nobel.jpg گرہارڈ ڈومگٹ جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ[۲۰۳] "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"[۲۰۴]
1943 Henrik Dam nobel.jpg Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark پروٹسٹنٹ "for his discovery of vitamin K"[۲۰۵]
Edward A Doisy.jpg ایدوارڈ اڈلبرٹڈویسی امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ (Congregationalists)[۲۰۶] "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[۲۰۵]
1945 Alexander Fleming 1945.jpg Sir الیگزنڈر فلیمنگ برطانیہ رومن کیتھولک[۲۰۷] "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[۲۰۸]
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori.jpg کارل فرڈیننڈ کوری امریکا رومن کیتھولک[۲۰۹] "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[۲۱۰]
Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz امریکا رومن کیتھولک[۲۱۱]
Bernado Houssay.JPG Bernardo Alberto Houssay ارجنٹائن رومن کیتھولک[۲۱۲] "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"[۲۱۰]
1949 Moniz.jpg António Caetano Egas Moniz پرتگال رومن کیتھولک[۲۱۳] "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses"[۲۱۴]
1951 Max Theiler nobel.jpg میکس تھیلر جنوبی افریقہ پروٹسٹنٹ[۲۱۵] "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[۲۱۶]
1957 Daniel Bovet nobel.jpg ڈینئیل بوٹ اطالیہ پروٹسٹنٹ "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[۲۱۷]
1958 75px جارج ویل بیڈل امریکا کرسچئین[۲۱۸] "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
75px ایڈوارڈ لاورک ٹاوٹم امریکا کرسچئین
1959 75px سیویرو اوچاو Spain
رومن کیتھولک "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[۲۱۹]
1960 Frank Macfarlane Burnet nobel.jpg Sir فرینک میکفر لین برنٹ Australia پروٹسٹنٹ[۲۲۰] "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[۲۲۱]
1961 Georg von Békésy nobel.jpg جارج وون بیکسی امریکا کرسچئین[۲۲۲] "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[۲۲۳]
1963 Eccles lab.jpg Sir John Carew Eccles Australia رومن کیتھولک[۲۲۴] "for his discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[۲۲۵]
1967 Ragnar Granit2.jpg راگنر گرانٹ Finland/Sweden پروٹسٹنٹ "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[۲۲۶]
Haldan Keffer Hartline nobel.jpg ہالڈن کیفر ہارٹ لائن امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ
1972 Nobel prize medal grey.png روڈنی رابرٹ پوٹر امریکا Methodists[۲۲۷] "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[۲۲۸]
1974 Nobel prize medal grey.png البرٹ کلاوڈی بلجئیم رومن کیتھولک[۲۲۹] "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[۲۳۰]
Nobel prize medal grey.png George E. Palade Romania راسخُ الا عتقاد کلیسا
1975 Renato Dulbecco crop.jpg ریناٹو ڈلبیکو Italy
امریکا
رومن کیتھولک "for his discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۲۳۱]
1976 Nobel prize medal grey.png D. Carleton Gajdusek امریکا Calvinist[۲۳۲] "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[۲۳۳]
1978 Werner Arber 2008.jpg ورنر اربر Switzerland پروٹسٹنٹ[۲۳۴] "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[۲۳۵]
1983 Barbara McClintock (1902-1992).jpg باربرا مک کلنٹک امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ (Congregationalists)[۶۳] "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[۲۳۶]
1988 James Black (pharmacologist).jpg Sir James W. Black برطانیہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Baptist)[۲۳۷] "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[۲۳۸]داء البلهارسياbrown tickShiju.jpg00099#رودسياoxyuris@schistomamars crystaldavidabdelmohsen117retrocyle effhuamnurter#117second_
George H. Hitchings 1988.jpg جارج ایچ ہائیچنگ امریکا کرسچئین
1990 Nobel prize medal grey.png Joseph E. Murray امریکا رومن کیتھولک[۲۳۹] "for his discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[۲۴۰]
1992 Nobel prize medal grey.png ایڈمنڈ ایچ فشر[۲۴۱] Switzerland
امریکا
پروٹسٹنٹ (Presbyterian) "for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[۲۴۲]
1995 Eric F. Wieschaus.jpg ارک ایف. وسچاوس امریکا رومن کیتھولک "for his discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[۲۴۳]
1998 Loius Ignarro.jpg Louis J. Ignarro امریکا رومن کیتھولک "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[۲۴۴]
Ferid Murad.jpg فیڑڈ میراڈ امریکا کرسچئین[۲۴۵]
2000 Paul Greengard.jpg پاول گرین گارڈ امریکا پروٹسٹنٹ (Episcopalian)[۲۴۶] "for his discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[۲۴۷]
2004 LindaBuck cropped 1.jpg لنڈابی بک امریکا کرسچئین "for her discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[۲۴۸]
2007 Mario Capecchi UTHSCSA.JPG Mario R. Capecchi امریکا Quaker[۲۴۹] "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[۲۵۰]
Martin Evans Nobel Prize.jpg Sir Martin J. Evans برطانیہ کرسچئین
2012 John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG Sir John B. Gurdon برطانیہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Anglican)[۲۵۱] "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[۲۵۲]

ادب[لکھو]

سال انعام یافتہ ملک فرقہ وجہ
1902 T-mommsen-2.jpg تھیوڈور مومسن Flag of the German Empire.svg جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome"[۲۵۳]
1903 Björnstjerne Björnson, 1901.jpg بیورنستار بیورنسن Union Jack of Sweden and Norway (1844-1905).svg Norway پروٹسٹنٹ[۲۵۴] "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"[۲۵۵]
1904 Frédéric Mistral by Paul Saïn.jpg فریڈرک مسترال Flag of France.svg France رومن کیتھولک "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"[۲۵۶]
José Echegaray y Eizaguirre.jpg جوزے ایشوگرائے Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Spain رومن کیتھولک "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"[۲۵۶]
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 02.jpg ہینرک شنگوچ Military ensign of Vistula Flotilla of Congress Poland.svg Poland رومن کیتھولک[۲۵۷] "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"[۲۵۸]
1909 Selma Lagerlöf.jpg سلما لاگرلف  سویڈن کرسچئین[۲۵۹] "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"[۲۶۰]
1910 Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel 042.jpg Paul von Heyse Flag of the German Empire.svg جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ of Jewish descent "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[۲۶۱]
1916 Johan Krouthén - Porträtt av Verner von Heidenstam.jpg ورنروون ہایڈنسٹام  سویڈن کرسچئین[۲۶۲] "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"[۲۶۳]
1923 William Butler Yeat by George Charles Beresford.jpg William Butler Yeats Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland Anglica[۲۶۴] "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"[۲۶۵]
1924 Władysław Reymont.jpg ولاڈی سلا ریمنٹ Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Poland رومن کیتھولک[۲۶۶] "for his great national epic, The Peasants"[۲۶۷]
1926 Grazia Deledda 1926.jpg گیزیا ڈلیڈا Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italy رومن کیتھولک[۲۶۸] "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"[۲۶۹]
1928 Sigrid Undset 1928.jpg سگرڈ انڈسٹ  ناروے
(Born in  ڈنمارک)
رومن کیتھولک[۲۷۰] "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"[۲۷۱]
1929 Thomas Mann 1937.jpg تھامس مین 20px جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ (Lutheran)[۲۷۲][۲۷۳] "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"[۲۷۴]
1933 Ivan Bunin 1933.jpg آیان بینن Flag of France.svg France (Born in Flag of Russia.svg Russia) Eastern Orthodox "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"[۲۷۵]
1938 Pearl Buck (Nobel).jpg پرل ایس بک  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Southern Presbyterian)[۲۷۶] "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"[۲۷۷]
1945 Gabriela Mistral-01 cropped.jpg گبریلا مسٹرال Flag of Chile.svg Chile رومن کیتھولک[۲۷۸] "for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"[۲۷۹]
1946 Hermann Hesse 1946.jpg ہرمن ہسی  سویٹزرلینڈ
(Born in Flag of the German Empire.svg جرمنی)
کرسچئین[۲۸۰][۲۸۱] "for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"[۲۸۲]
1947 André Gide.jpg آندرے ژید Flag of France.svg France پروٹسٹنٹ[۲۸۳] "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"[۲۸۴]
1948 T.S. Eliot, 1923.JPG ٹی۔ ایس ایلیٹ  برطانیہ
(Born in the  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ)
Anglican[۲۸۵][۲۸۶] "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"[۲۸۷]
1949 Carl Van Vechten - William Faulkner.jpg ویلیم فالکنر  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Episcopalian) "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"[۲۸۸]
1952 François Mauriac (1932).jpg فرانسیوس ماؤریک Flag of France.svg France رومن کیتھولک[۲۸۹] "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"[۲۹۰]
1953 Churchill portrait NYP 45063.jpg Sir Winston Churchill  برطانیہ Anglican "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"[۲۹۱]
1954 ErnestHemingway.jpg Ernest Hemingway  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ Converts to رومن کیتھولکism[۲۹۲] "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in سمندر اور بوڑھا, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"[۲۹۳]
1955 Halldór Kiljan Laxness 1955.jpg ہالڈورلیکسنس  آئس لینڈ Converts to رومن کیتھولکism[۲۹۴] "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"[۲۹۵]
1956 JRJimenez.JPG جون ریمن جیمنیز  پورٹو ریکو (Born in Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Spain) رومن کیتھولک "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"[۲۹۶]
1958 بریس پاسترناک  سوویت یونین Converts to راسخُ الا عتقاد کلیسا from Judaism[۲۹۷] "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[۲۹۸]
1961 ایواینڈرک  Yugoslavia
(Born in  آسٹریا-ہنگری)
رومن کیتھولک "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"[۲۹۹]
1962 JohnSteinbeck crop.JPG جانسٹین بک  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ Raised Episcopalian[۳۰۰] later he become agnostic "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"[۳۰۱]
1963 Giorgos Seferis 1963.jpg یور گوسسیفرس State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1970).svg Greece
(Born in the  سلطنت عثمانیہ)
Greek Orthodox "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"[۳۰۲]
1967 MiguelAngelAsturias.JPG میگوئو ل اینجل اسٹریس  گواتیمالا رومن کیتھولک "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"[۳۰۳]
1969 Samuel Beckett, f11.jpg سیموئل بکٹ  فرانس (Born in  آئرلینڈ) Anglican (Church of Ireland) "for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"[۳۰۴]
1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1974crop.jpg الیکزینڈر سلزینسٹائن  سوویت یونین Eastern Orthodox[۳۰۵] "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"[۳۰۶]
1972 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F062164-0004, Bonn, Heinrich Böll.jpg ہنرک بول 20px جرمنی (West) رومن کیتھولک[۳۰۷] "for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"[۳۰۸]
1979 Odysseas Elytis 1974.jpg اودیسس الیٹس  یونان Greek Orthodox "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"[۳۰۹]
1980 Czesław Miłosz 2011 Lithuania stamp.jpg چیکلا ملوسز  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ (Born in Military ensign of Vistula Flotilla of Congress Poland.svg Poland) رومن کیتھولک[۳۱۰] "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"[۳۱۱]
1982 Gabriel Garcia Marquez.jpg Gabriel García Márquez  کولمبیا رومن کیتھولک[۳۱۲] "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"[۳۱۳]
1989 Camilo José Cela Madrid 1996.jpg کمیلو جوز کیلا  سپین رومن کیتھولک "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"[۳۱۴]
1990 Paz0.jpg اوکٹاویو پاز  میکسیکو رومن کیتھولک "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"[۳۱۵]
1992 Derek Walcott.jpg ڈیرک ولکوٹ  سینٹ لوسیا پروٹسٹنٹ (Methodist )[۳۱۶] "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"[۳۱۷]
1993 Toni Morrison 2008-2.jpg ٹونی موریسن  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ رومن کیتھولک[۳۱۸] "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"[۳۱۹]
1999 Grass.JPG گنتھر گراس  جرمنی رومن کیتھولک[۳۲۰][۳۲۱] "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"[۳۲۲]
2003 J.M. Coetzee.JPG جے ایم کوئٹزی  دکھنی افریقہ
 آسٹریلیا
پروٹسٹنٹ[۳۲۳] "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"[۳۲۴]
2008 Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-2.jpg ژاں ماری لی کلیزیو  فرانس
 موریشس
رومن کیتھولک "author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"[۳۲۵]
2010 Vargas Losa Göteborg Book Fair 2011b.jpg ماریو ورگاس للوسا  پیرو
 سپین
رومن کیتھولک[۳۲۶] "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"[۳۲۷]

امن[لکھو]

سال انعام یافتہ ملک فرقہ وجہ
1902 Ducommun.jpg الی ڈوکمن  سویٹزرلینڈ پروٹسٹنٹ "[For his role as] the first honorary secretary of the عالمی امن دفتر"[۳۲۸]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpg ایلبرٹ گوباٹ پروٹسٹنٹ "[For his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"
1903 Cremer.jpg William Randal Cremer 20px برطانیہ Methodist "[For his role as the] the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[۳۲۹]
1905 Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg برتھا فان ستنر  آسٹریا-ہنگری رومن کیتھولک[۳۳۰] For authoring Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[۱۲][۳۳۱]
1906 President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg تھیوڈور روزویلٹ  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Dutch Reformed Church)[۳۳۲] "[F]or his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[۱۲][۳۳۳]
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpg ارنسٹ ٹیوڈورو مونیٹا Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italy رومن کیتھولک "[For his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"[۱۲][۳۳۴]
Louis Renault jurist.gif Louis Renault Flag of France.svg France رومن کیتھولک "[For his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"
1909 Beernaert.gif آگسٹے بیرنارٹ  بیلجیم رومن کیتھولک "[For being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[۱۲][۳۳۵]
PaulBalluet.gif Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant Flag of France.svg France پروٹسٹنٹ (کالوینیت) "[For] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[۱۲][۳۳۵]
1912 Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg الیہو روٹ[A]  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Presbyterian) "[F]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[۱۲][۳۳۶]
1919 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg ووڈرو ولسن  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Presbyterian)[۳۳۷] "[F]or his crucial role in establishing the جمعیت الاقوام"[۱۲][۳۳۸]
1921 Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg یلمار برانٹنگ  سویڈن Lutheran (Church of Sweden)[۳۳۹] "[F]or his work in the جمعیت الاقوام"[۱۲][۳۴۰]
75px کرسچئین Lange  ناروے Lutheran (Church of Norway) "[For his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[۱۲][۳۴۰]
1925 Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg اسٹن چیمبرلین[A]  برطانیہ Unitarian[۳۴۱] For work on the Locarno Treaties[۱۲][۳۴۲]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg چارلز ڈاز[A]  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Congregationalist) "[F]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[۱۲][۳۴۲]
1926 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg گستاف سٹریسمان 20px جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ For work on the Locarno Treaties[۱۲][۳۴۳]
1927 Ferdinand Buisson 1924.jpg فرڈیننڈ بوئسوں Flag of France.svg France پروٹسٹنٹ[۳۴۴] "[For] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[۱۲][۳۴۵]
1930 Nathan Söderblom nobel.jpg ناتھن سودربلوم  سویڈن Lutheran (Church of Sweden) "[F]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[۱۲][۳۴۶]
1931 Jane Addams profile.jpg جین ایڈمز  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Presbyterian)[۳۴۷] "[F]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[۱۲][۳۴۸]
Nicholas Murray Butler ppmsca.03668.jpg نکولس مرے بٹلر پروٹسٹنٹ (Episcopalian) "[For his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[۱۲][۳۴۸]
1934 1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg آرتھر ہینڈرسن  برطانیہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Methodist)[۳۴۹] "[F]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[۱۲][۳۵۰][۳۵۱]
1935 Carl von Ossietzky.jpg کارل فان اوسیتزکی[B] Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg جرمنی پروٹسٹنٹ (Lutheran)[۳۵۲] "[For his] struggle against جرمنی's rearmament"[۱۲][۳۵۳]
1945 Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpg کورڈل ہل  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Episcopalian)[۳۵۴] "[For] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[۳۵۵]
1946 EmilyGreeneBalch.jpg ایملی گرین بالچ  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ Quaker[۳۵۶] "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[۳۵۷]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpg John Raleigh Mott پروٹسٹنٹ (Methodist)[۳۵۸] "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's کرسچئین Associations"[۳۵۷]
1947 Quaker star-T.svg Friends Service Council  برطانیہ Quaker "compassion for others and the desire to help them"[۳۵۹]
امریکن فرینڈز سروس کمیٹی  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)
1949 John Boyd Orr nobel.jpg The Lord Boyd-Orr  برطانیہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Free Church of Scotland)[۳۶۰] "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General ادارہ برائے خوراک و زراعت; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[۳۶۱]
1950 Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpg رالف جانسن بنچ  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Baptist)[۳۶۲] "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[۳۶۳]
1952 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0116-0041-019, Albert Schweitzer.jpg البرٹ شویتزر Flag of France.svg France کرسچئین[۳۶۴] "Missionary surgeon; Founder of لامبارینی (République de Gabon)"[۳۶۵]
1953 General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG George Catlett Marshall  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Episcopalian)[۳۶۶] "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'مارشل منصوبہسانچہ:'"[۳۶۷]
1957 Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg Lester Bowles Pearson  کینیڈا پروٹسٹنٹ (United Church of Canada)[۳۶۸] "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[۳۶۹] "for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[۱۲]
1958 Georges Pire 1958.jpg جارج پائر  بیلجیم رومن کیتھولک "Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[۳۷۰]
1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1942.jpg Philip Noel-Baker  برطانیہ Quaker[۳۷۱] "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[۳۷۲]
1960 Albert Lutuli nobel.jpg ایلبرٹ لوٹولی Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg South Africa
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
پروٹسٹنٹ (Methodist) "President of the African National Congress,"[۳۷۳] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[۱۲]
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld.jpg داگ ہمارشولد[C]  سویڈن پروٹسٹنٹ (Lutheran)[۳۷۴] "Secretary General of the U.N.,"[۳۷۵] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[۱۲]
1964 Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg مارٹن لوتھر کنگ جونیئر  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Baptist; Progressive National Baptist Convention) Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence."[۳۷۶]
1970 Norman Borlaug (cropped).jpg Norman E. Borlaug  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Lutheran) "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;"[۳۷۷] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."[۱۲]
1971 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg ولی برانت 20px جرمنی (West) پروٹسٹنٹ (Lutheran)[۳۷۸] "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of جرمنی; for West جرمنی's Ostpolitik"[۳۷۹]
1974 Seán MacBride 1984.jpg سین میک برائیڈ  آئرلینڈ
(Born in Flag of France.svg France)
رومن کیتھولک[۳۸۰] "President of the عالمی امن دفتر; President of the Commission of نمیبیا."[۳۸۱] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[۱۲]
1976 Betty Williams.jpg Betty Williams  برطانیہ رومن کیتھولک "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[۳۸۲]
Mairead Corrigan Gaza crop.jpg Mairead Corrigan رومن کیتھولک[۳۸۳]
1979 MotherTeresa 090.jpg مدر ٹریسا  البانیا (Born in Ottoman Kosovo) رومن کیتھولک[۳۸۴] "Founder of Missionaries of Charity"[۳۸۵]
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpg ایڈولفو اسقویول  ارجنٹائن رومن کیتھولک[۳۸۶] "Human rights leader;"[۳۸۷] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[۱۲]
1982 Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg الفانسو گارشیا روبلز  میکسیکو رومن کیتھولک "[for] his magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[۳۸۸][۳۸۹]
1983 Lech Walesa OAF Visit.jpg لیخ والینسا Flag of Poland.svg Poland رومن کیتھولک[۳۹۰] "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[۳۹۱]
1984 Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpg ڈسمنڈ ٹوٹو  دکھنی افریقہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Anglican) "Bishop of Johannesburg; former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches"[۳۹۲]
1987 OscarArias.jpg اوسکر اریآس  کوسٹاریکا رومن کیتھولک "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[۳۹۳]
1993 Nelson Mandela-2008.jpg نیلسن منڈیلا  دکھنی افریقہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Methodist)[۳۹۴] "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[۳۹۵]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg Frederik Willem de Klerk پروٹسٹنٹ (Reformed)[۳۹۶]
1996 Carlosbelo.jpg کارلس بیلو  انڈونیشیا رومن کیتھولک "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[۳۹۷]
EastTimor.JoseRamosHorta.01.jpg جوز ریموس ہورٹا رومن کیتھولک
1998 John Hume 2008.jpg جان ہیوم  برطانیہ رومن کیتھولک[۳۹۸] "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[۳۹۹]
David Trimble.jpg ڈیوڈ ٹرمبل پروٹسٹنٹ (Presbyterian)[۴۰۰][۴۰۱]
2000 Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png کم ڈے ژونگ  جنوبی کوریا رومن کیتھولک[۴۰۲] "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[۴۰۳]
2001 Kofi Annan, Photo: Harry Wad کوفی عنان  گھانا پروٹسٹنٹ[۴۰۴] "for his work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[۴۰۵]
2002 Jimmy Carter.jpg جمی کارٹر  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Baptist)[۴۰۶] "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[۴۰۷]
2004 Wangari Maathai portrait by Martin Rowe.jpg Wangari Muta Maathai  کینیا رومن کیتھولک[۴۰۸] "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[۴۰۹]
2007 Al Gore.jpg ایل گور  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ (Baptist) "for his efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[۴۱۰]
2008 Martti Ahtisaari.jpg مارٹی اہتیشری  فن لینڈ پروٹسٹنٹ (Lutheran) "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[۴۱۱]
2009 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg بارک اوباما  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ[۴۱۲] "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[۴۱۳]
2011 Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg ایلن جانسن سرلیف  لائبیریا پروٹسٹنٹ (Methodist)[۴۱۴] "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[۴۱۵]
Leymah-gbowee-at-emu-press-conference.jpg لیما غبووی پروٹسٹنٹ (Lutheran)[۴۱۶]

معاشیات[لکھو]

سال انعام یافتہ ملک فرقہ وجہ
1969 Uio frisch 2006 0025.jpg راگنرفرشچ  ناروے پروٹسٹنٹ[۷۱] "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"
Jan Tinbergen 1982.jpg جان ٹنبرجن  نیدرلینڈز پروٹسٹنٹ
1975 Nobel prize medal grey.png تجالنگ کوپمنس  نیدرلینڈز
 ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ
پروٹسٹنٹ "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[۴۱۷]
1979 Nobel prize medal grey.png تھیوڈور سکلٹز  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries."[۴۱۸]
Nobel prize medal grey.png Arthur Lewis  سینٹ لوسیا
 برطانیہ
رومن کیتھولک[۴۱۹]
1982 Nobel prize medal grey.png جیورج سٹگلر  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ کرسچئین[۴۲۰] "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"[۴۲۱]
1986 James Buchanan by Atlas network.jpg جیمز ایم۔ بچانن  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ[۴۲۲] "for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"[۴۲۳]
1988 ALLAIS PN Maurice-24x30-2001b.jpg ماورس آلیس  فرانس رومن کیتھولک "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"[۴۲۴]
1989 Trygve Haavelmo.jpg ٹراگیو ہیولمو  ناروے پروٹسٹنٹ[۴۲۵] "for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"[۴۲۶]
1994 Nobel prize medal grey.png جون ہارسانئے  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ Raised a devout Catholic,[۴۲۷] later he abandoned Catholicism "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games."[۴۲۸]
Reinhard Selten2.jpg رینہارڈ سیلٹن  جرمنی Raised as پروٹسٹنٹ,[۴۲۹] later he left the church
1996 Nobel prize medal grey.png ولیم وکری  کینیڈا
 ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ
Quaker [۴۳۰] "for his fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"[۴۳۱]
2003 Robert F. Engle.jpg رابرٹ ایف۔اینگل  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ Quaker[۴۳۲] "for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"[۴۳۳]
Clive Granger by Olaf Storbeck.jpg کلائوگرینجر  برطانیہ کرسچئین "for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"[۴۳۳]
2009 Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-30.jpg الینر اوسٹرم  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ پروٹسٹنٹ[۴۳۴] "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"[۴۳۵]
2010 Christopher Pissarides.jpg کریسٹوفر اے . پسارائیڈ  قبرص راسخُ الا عتقاد کلیسا[۴۳۶] "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[۴۳۷]
2013 Eugene Fama at Nobel Prize, 2013.jpg Eugene F. Fama  ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکہ رومن کیتھولک[۴۳۸] "for their empirical analysis of asset prices."
Robert Shiller - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012.jpg رابرٹ جے۔ شیلر پروٹسٹنٹ (Methodist)[۴۳۹]

مزید دیکھئے[لکھو]

حوالے[لکھو]

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