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لسٹ فراعین مصر

آزاد انسائیکلوپیڈیا، وکیپیڈیا توں


فرعون مصر
سابقہ بادشاہت
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of تھلواں مصر and the White Crown of اتلا مصر۔
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
اولین بادشاہ/ملکہ نارمر (a.k.a. Menes)
آخری بادشاہ/ملکہ Nectanebo II
(last native)[۱]
Cleopatra & Caesarion
(last actual)
انداز Five-name titulary
سرکاری رہائش گاہ Varies by era
تقرر کنندہ Divine right
بادشاہت دا آغاز c. 3100 BC
بادشاہت دا آختتام 343 BC
(last native pharaoh)[۱]
30 BC
(last Greek pharaohs)

ایہ فہرست فراعنہ مصر (List of pharaohs) اے۔ فرعون دا لقب قدیم مصر دے بادشاہاں لئی استعمال ہندا اےـ لغوی معنی "عظیم گھر" نیں جس توں مراد بادشاہ دا محل سی ۔ سمجھا جاندا سی کہ سارے فرعون مصری دیوتےآں دی اولاد نیں ـ[۲]

Legendary period[سودھو]

In the texts of the Palermo، Turin and Manetho king lists, there are different versions of names of eight god kings that ruled Egypt in the beginning.[حوالہ درکار]

Turin King list Manetho
(Greek equivalent)
پتاح Hephestus
Craftsmen & Creation
رع Helios
Shu Aelos or Agathosdaimon (perhaps Sothis?)
دیوتا گب Gaia
اوزیریس Hades Afterlife
Set طائفون
حورس Ares War
تحوت ایتھنے Knowledge
ماعت Order

These god kings are followed by differing sets of semi-divine rulers.

Turin King List Length Manetho Length
Second dynasty of gods unknown Dynasty of Halfgods unknown
3 Achu-Dynasties unknown 30 Kings from Memphis 1790 years
Dynasty of Disciples of حورس unknown 10 Kings from تینیس 350 years

Archaic period[سودھو]

The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period، when زیریں مصر and بالائی مصر were ruled as separate kingdoms.

Early Dynastic: Lower Egypt[سودھو]

زیریں مصر consisted of the northern دریائے نیل and the Nile Delta۔ The following list may not be complete:

نام Comments Dates
Hsekiu[۳] Only known from the Palermo stone ?
Khayu[۳] Only known from the Palermo stone ?
Tiu[۳] Only known from the Palermo stone ?
Thesh[۳] Only known from the Palermo stone ?
Neheb[۳] Only known from the Palermo stone ?
Wazner[۳] Only known from the Palermo stone c. 3100 BC?
Mekh[۳] Only known from the Palermo stone ?
(destroyed)[۳] Was only known from the Palermo stone ?
Double Falcon Attested through finds from Sinai and Lower Egypt c. 3200 BC?

Early Dynastic: Upper Egypt[سودھو]

بالائی مصر consisted of the Nile Valley, south of the Delta. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name Image Comments Dates
Scorpion I Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had scorpion insignia c. 3200 BC?
Possibly the immediate predecessor of Ka. c. 3150 BC?
Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Possibly the immediate predecessor of Narmer. c. 3100 BC
King Scorpion
Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as نارمر۔ c. 3150 BC
The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt.[۶] c. 3150 BC

First Dynasty[سودھو]

The First Dynasty ruled from approximately 3150 to 2890 BC, by some chronological schemes. (There are no precise or agreed-upon year dates for any of the Old or Middle Kingdom periods, and reign estimates differ widely from one Egyptologist to the next.)

Name Image Comments Dates
Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt. c. 3150 BC
c. 3050 BC
41 years
10 years[۷]
Female Regent for Den, may have ruled as pharaoh in her own right
First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a golden Horus name. 42 years[۷]
10 years
9 years
2916?–2890 BC

In the interregnum between the first and second dynasties two short lived pharaohs may have reigned :

Name Image Comments Dates
Very short reign c. 2900 BC
Horus Bird
Very short reign c. 2900 BC

Second Dynasty[سودھو]

The Second Dynasty ruled c. 2890–2686 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
25–29 years
Name may be read Nebra rather than Raneb. Could be the same person as Weneg.[۱۰] 10–14 years
May have divided Egypt between his successors 43–45 years
Could be an independent ruler or the same as Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb
Possibly the same person as Seth Peribsen [۱۴]
May have reigned over Upper Egypt only, could be the same person as Senedj or Sekhemib-Perenmaat.[۱۶]
May have reigned over Upper Egypt only, could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[۱۶]
Reunified Egypt after a period of troubles ca. 2690 BC 17–18 years

Old Kingdom[سودھو]

The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley)، spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2686–2181 BC)۔ Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis۔ The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period—or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis، where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids"۔

Third Dynasty[سودھو]

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt The Step Pyramid Constructed by Djosers' chief architect and scribe Imhotep[۲۱] 19 or 28 years ca. 2670 BC; Radiocarbon dates start reign between 2691 and 2625[۲۲]
Imhotep participated in the construction of his unfinished step pyramid 2649–2643
Could be the same as Nebka c. 2650
Built an unfinished step pyramid 2643–2637
Could be the same as Qahedjet، may have started the Meidum pyramid 2637–2613

Fourth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops)، Khafra (Chephren) and منقرع (Mycerinus)۔

Name Image Comments Dates
Built the Meidum Pyramid and the ہرم سنفرو (341 ft/103m from the base to the tip)، which is a pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, the سرخ ہرم۔ Some say that he was buried in the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried in the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that this is Sneferu's body.
2613–2589 BC
Greek form: Cheops۔ Built the great pyramid of Giza۔ Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, names, and monuments have perished for one reason or another.
2589–2566 BC
جدفرع (Radjedef)
Believed to have created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Before being demolished by the Romans, according to a documentary aired by the History Channel, the pyramid may actually have been the highest ever built (about 20 meters taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza although this is due to its elevated location rather than the size from base to tip)۔
2566–2558 BC
Greek form: Chephren His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Credited by some Egyptologists as the builder of the Great Sphinx of Giza۔
2558–2532 BC
Here some authorities insert Bikheris، following Manetho
Greek form: Mycerinus۔ His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza.
2532–2503 BC
Broke with the tradition of pyramid building and instead had the Mastabat el-Fara'un made for himself
2503–2498 BC
Djedefptah Here some authorities insert Djedefptah a.k.a. Thampthis، following Manetho

Fifth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara۔ Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
2498–2491 BC
Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir، where he built his pyramid۔
2490–2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai
2477–2467 BC
Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months.[۲۵]
2467–2460 BC
2460–2458 BC
Nyuserre Ini
2445–2422 BC
Menkauhor Kaiu
2422–2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi
2414–2375 BC
His pyramid is inscribed with the earliest instance of the ہرمی ادب
2375–2345 BC

Sixth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Was possibly murdered by his successor
2345–2333 BC
Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I
2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II
Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reign "only" 64 years.
2278–2184 BC
Neferka Only mentioned in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt۔ Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[۲۶]
Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II.
1 year and 1 month c. 2184 BC
Neitiqerty Siptah
Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of هيرودوت and Manetho۔[۲۷] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2184 BC – 2181 BC

First Intermediate Period[سودھو]

The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom۔

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II۔ He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine۔

Around 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite زیریں مصر from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna۔ In the meantime, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting بالائی مصر and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II، the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)[سودھو]

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from c. 2181 to c. 2160 BC. They comprise numerous ephemeral rulers reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt. This table is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[۲۸] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon، another king list dating to the Ramesside Era۔[۲۹]

Name Image Comments Dates
Neferkare II
Neferkare (III) Neby
Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Djedkare Shemai
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Some authorities place Merenhor here
Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal.
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Attested by a cylinder seal.
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
Neferkamin Anu
Qakare Ibi
Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the ہرمی ادب 2169–2167 BC
Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos۔ 2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi
Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay۔ 2163–2161 BC
Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. 2161–2160 BC

Ninth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Ninth Dynasty[۳۰] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[۳۰]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I)
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. 2160–?
- ?
Neferkare VII - ?
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II)
- ?
Senenh— or Setut - ?
- ?
Mery— - ?
Shed— - ?
H— - ?

Tenth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over زیریں مصر that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryhathor 2130–?
Neferkare VIII ?
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III) ?

Eleventh Dynasty[سودھو]

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in بالائی مصر that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty.

The successors of Intef the Elder، starting with Mentuhotep I، became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II۔

Name Image Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently.
?–2134 BC
Sehertawy Intef I
First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
2134–2117 BC
Wahankh Intef II
Conquered Abydos and its nome.
2117–2069 BC
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
Conquered اسیوط and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[۳۱]
2069–2060 BC

Middle Kingdom[سودھو]

The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period۔ In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty، some scholars include the Eleventh، Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos۔

Eleventh Dynasty continued[سودھو]

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II[۳۲]
Gained all Egypt ca. 2015 BC, Middle Kingdom begins.
2060–2010 BC
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[۳۳]
Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom
2010–1998 BC
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[۳۴]
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I۔
1997–1991 BC

Twelfth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and is considered by later Egyptians to have been their greatest dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[۳۵][۳۶]
Seized power after overthrowing Mentuhotep IV. Died assassinated.
1991–1962 BC
Kheperkare Senusret I[۳۷] (Sesostris I)
Built the White Chapel
1971–1926 BC
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[۳۸]
1929–1895 BC
Khakheperre Senusret II[۳۹] (Sesostris II)
1897–1878 BC
Khakaure Senusret III[۴۰] (Sesostris III)
Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.
1878–1860 BC
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[۴۱]
1860–1815 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[۴۲]
Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso۔
1815–1807 BC
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[۴۳]
A rare female ruler.
1807–1802 BC

Second Intermediate Period[سودھو]

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom، and the start of the New Kingdom۔ It is best known as when the Hyksos، whose reign comprised the Fifteenth، made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty، and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois، located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty۔

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV، and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na)، conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Then, some time around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis، thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes، only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty۔ This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies 1802–1800 BC[۴۴]
Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[۴۴] 1800 BC – 1796 BC[۴۴]
1796 BC
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
3 to 4 years[۴۴] 1796–1793 BC[۴۴]
Ameny Qemau Buried in his pyramid in south دہشور 1795–1792 BC
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef
Also called Sehotepibre 1792–1790 BC
Iufni Only attested on the Turin canon Very short reign, possibly c. 1790 – 1788 BC[۴۴]
Seankhibre Amenemhet VI
1788–1785 BC
Semenkare Nebnuni
1785–1783 BC[۴۴] or 1739 BC[۴۵]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy
1783–1781 BC[۴۴]
Sewadjkare Known only from the Turin canon
Nedjemibre Known only from the Turin canon 7 months, 1780 BC[۴۴] or 1736 BC[۴۵]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep
Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC[۴۴]
Renseneb 4 months 1777 BC[۴۴]
Awybre Hor I
Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC[۴۴]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC[۴۴]
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC[۴۴]
Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[۴۴]
A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. 5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC[۴۴]
Khutawyre Wegaf
Founder of the dynasty in old studies c. 1767 BC
Possibly the first سامی قوم pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
Attested by two colossal statues Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC[۴۴] or 1711 BC.[۴۶]
Sehetepkare Intef IV
Seth Meribre ?
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
4 years and 2 months c. 1755–1751 BC
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I
11 years 1751–1740 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently. 1739 BC[۴۴]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV
10 or 11 years 1740–1730 BC
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
c. 1730 BC
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI
4 years 8 months and 29 days c. 1725 BC
Wahibre Ibiau
10 years and 8 months 1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC[۴۴]
Merneferre Ay I
Longest reigning king of the dynasty 23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC[۴۴] or 1714–1691 BC
Merhotepre Ini
Possibly a son of his predecessor 2 Years 3 or 4 Months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC[۴۴] or 1691–1689 BC
Sankhenre Sewadjtu Attested only on the Turin canon 3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC[۴۴]
Mersekhemre Ined
May be the same person as Neferhotep II 3 years, 1672–1669 BC[۴۴]
Sewadjkare Hori 5 years ?
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII 2 years and 6 months [۴۴] 1664–1663 BC[۴۴]
Seven kings Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon [۴۴] 1663 BC –?[۴۴]
Mer[…]re ?
Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [۴۴]
Merkare Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC [۴۴]
Name lost ?
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
c. 1655 BC[۴۴]
[…]mosre ?
Ibi […]maatre ?
Hor[…] […]webenre ?
Se.۔۔kare ? ?
Seheqenre Sankhptahi
May be the son of his predecessor ?
۔۔۔re ? ?
Se.۔۔enre ? ?–1649 BC [۴۴]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Dedumose I
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty c. 1654
Dedumose II
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty ?
Sewahenre Senebmiu
Late 13th dynasty. After 1660 BC.[۴۴]
Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty ?

Fourteenth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris،[۴۷] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin.

Name Image Comments Dates
Yakbim Sekhaenre
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[۴۷] 1805–1780 BC
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[۴۷] 1780–1770 BC
Qareh Khawoserre[۴۷]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[۴۷] 1770–1760 BC
'Ammu Ahotepre[۴۷]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[۴۷] 1760–1745 BC
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.[۴۷] 1745–1705 BC
Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi [۴۷] c. 1705
سخاوی خاندان - ?
سخاوی خاندان - c. 1704
Sehebre Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[۴۴] -
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[۴۴] c. 1699
Sewadjkare III - ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre - ?
- ?
Djefare? - ?
Webenre c. 1690
Sekheperenre[۴۷] Attested by a single scarab seal 2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Anati Djedkare[۴۷] Only known from the Turin canon
Bebnum[۴۷] Only known from the Turin canon
'Apepi[۴۷] Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nuya[۴۴] Attested by a scarab-seal
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare c. 1700 BC ?
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Shenshek[۴۴] Attested by a scarab-seal
May belong to the 14th dynasty، the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. 17th–16th centuries BCE

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the زرخیز ہلال to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Chronological position uncertain. 1649 BC – ?
Chronological position uncertain.
Sakir-Har - ?
Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign 30–40 years
- 40 years or more
- 1555–1544

Abydos Dynasty[سودھو]

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC.[۴۹][۵۰][۵۱] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[۵۲]
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[۵۲]
Menkhaure Snaaib
May belong to the late 13th Dynasty۔[۵۳][۵۴][۵۵]
Woseribre Senebkay
Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[…]re of the Turin canon.

Sixteenth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13 th dynasty c. 1650 BC and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 1580 BC. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper-Egypt only.

Name Image Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List، and cannot be recovered
Djehuti Sekhemresementawy 3 years
Sobekhotep VIII Sekhemreseusertawy
16 years
Neferhotep III Sekhemresankhtawy 1 year
Mentuhotepi Seankhenre May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[۵۴] 1 year
Nebiryraw I Sewadjenre
26 years
Nebiriau II
Bebiankh Seuserenre
12 years
Dedumose I Djedhotepre
May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[۵۴]
Dedumose II Djedneferre
Montuemsaf Djedankhre
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
Senusret IV Seneferibre
Sekhemre Shedwast

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[۵۶] and Nebmaatre۔ Their chronological position is uncertain.[۵۳][۵۴]

Seventeenth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in بالائی مصر and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep
c. 1620 BC
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I
Reigned at least 7 years -
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II
His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramses IX -
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V
- -
Nubkheperre Intef VI
Reigned more than 3 years -
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII
- -
Senakhtenre Ahmose - -
c. 1558 BC
Seqenenre Tao
Died in battle against the Hyksos.
1558–1554 BC
1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have comprised the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre، whose chronological position is uncertain.[۴۴]

New Kingdom[سودھو]

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth، Nineteenth، and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt، from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period، and the Third Intermediate Period۔

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the مشرق قریب۔ Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day شام۔

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten، also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the آتون is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism، and رمسيس ثانی، who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine، لبنان and شام that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh، where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II۔

Eighteenth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I، Ahmosis I
Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos. c. 1550–1525 BCE; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BCE, the mean point of which is 1557 BCE[۵۷]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
- 1541–1520
Aakheperkare Thutmose I
- 1520–1492
Aakheperenre Thutmose II
- 1492–1479
Maatkare Hatshepsut
The second known female ruler, though quite possibly the seventh (the reigns of five other women are likely, but disputed)۔ Recent evidence suggests she died of bone cancer.[۵۸] 1479–1458
Menkheperre Thutmose III
Often called the "نپولین of Egypt." Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died, he began expanding Egyptian rule into the سرزمین شام۔ 1479–1425
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II
- 1425–1400
Menkheperure Thutmose IV
- 1400–1390
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King
Ruled Egypt at the peak of its power, surpassed all pharaohs in numbers of monuments built and statues erected. His mortuary temple was the largest ever built, only to be destroyed by Rameses II. Recent DNA testing proved he was the grandfather of Tutankhamun. 1390–1352
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
Founder of brief period of a solar-centered religion (Atenism)۔ His original name means "آمون is pleased." 1352–1334
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare
Co-regent and successor of Akhenaten. The identity of this individual is uncertain and disputed. Usually believed to be either a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten but sometimes identified as Akhenaten's wife Nefertiti۔ Other scholars distinguish two individuals between Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, namely Smenkhkare, who is then seen as male, and a female ruler, who is then most often identified as Akhenaten's eldest daughter Meritaten 1334–1333
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/توتخ آمون
Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, probably reinstated the polytheistic religion and the name change reflects the change in primary deity from Aten to Amun. He is also known as the boy king. 1333–1324
Kheperkheperure Ay
Close advisor to two and perhaps three of the pharaohs who ruled before him and was said to be the power behind the throne during Tutankhamun's reign. 1324–1320
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb
Former General and advisor to توتخ آمون۔ Obliterated images of the Amarna queens and kings (all except Amenhotep III and Tiye)۔ 1320–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: رمسيس ثانی the Great:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[۵۹]
- 1292–1290
Menmaatre Seti I
- 1290–1279
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great
The ruler usually associated with موسیٰ علیہ السلام; he reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC 1279–1213
Banenre Merenptah[۶۰]
A stele describing campaigns in لیبیا and کنعان contains the only extant reference to "Israel" in Ancient Egyptian records. 1213–1203
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse
- 1203–1200
Userkheperure Seti II[۶۱]
- 1203–1197
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[۶۲]
- 1197–1191
Satre-merenamun Tausret
A rare female ruler also known as Tawosret in some places, she was probably the wife of Seti II.[۶۳] 1191–1190

Twentieth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakht
- 1190–1186
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III
Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. Died assassinated in a harem plot. 1186–1155
User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV
- 1155–1149
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V
- 1149–1145
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI
- 1145–1137
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII
- 1137–1130
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII
- 1130–1129
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX
- 1129–1111
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[۶۴]
- 1111–1107
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[۶۵]
Ended rule sharing power with High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling in the south and Smendes I ruling in the north, a period known as wehem mesut۔[۶۶] 1107–1077

Third Intermediate Period[سودھو]

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–732 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of لیبیاn origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty[سودھو]

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed[۶۷]
Also known as Smendes I 1077–1051
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu
- 1051–1047
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)
Also known as the Silver Pharaoh 1047–1001
Usermaatre Amenemope
- 1001–992
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)
- * (Osochor ) 992–986
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun
- 986–967
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)
- 967–943

Twenty-Second Dynasty[سودھو]

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were لیبیاns, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I
- 922–887
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II
- 887–885
Takelot I
- 885–872
Hedjkheperre Harsiese
A rebel, at Thebes 880–860
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II
- 872–837
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III
- 837–798
Shoshenq IV - 798–785
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami
- 785–778
Aakheperre Shoshenq V
- 778–740
Aakheperre-setepenamun Osorkon IV
- 740–720

Twenty-Third Dynasty[سودھو]

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of لیبیاn origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II
Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837–813
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast
A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II 826–801
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I Co-regent with Pedubast 812–811
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801–795
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III
Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king 795–767
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III
Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign. 773–765
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun
Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. 765–762

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Ini
Reigned at Thebes only 762-?

The Libu[سودھو]

Not recognised as a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (لیبیاns) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu 805–795
? - 795–780
Niumateped - 780–755
Titaru - 763–755
Ker - 755–750
Rudamon - 750–745
Ankhor - 745–736
Tefnakht - 736–732

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais)، with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte
- 732–725
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)
- 725–720

Late period[سودھو]

The Late Period runs from 732 BC to Egypt becoming a province of Rome 30 ق م میں، and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians، and مقدونیہ (قدیم مملکت)ians.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty[سودھو]

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye
King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 752–721 according to Dan'el Kahn
Neferkare Shabaka
- 721–707/706 according to Rolf Krauss/David Warburton[۶۸]
Djedkaure Shebitku
- 707/706–690 according to Dan'el Kahn[۶۹]
Khuinefertemre Taharqa
- 690–664
Bakare Tantamani
lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664–653

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590)، and, later, at مرواہ (590 BC – 4th century AD)۔

Twenty-sixth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC.[۷۰]

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)
Was killed by an invading مملکت کوش force in 664 BC under Tantamani۔ Father of Psamtik I۔ 672 – 664 BC
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of نکوہ دوم۔ 664 – 610 BC
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)
Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the کتاب مقدس۔ Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II۔ 610 – 595 BC
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
Son of نکوہ دوم and father of Apries۔ 595 – 589 BC
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)
Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II۔ 589 – 570 BC
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II)
He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian هيرودوت، he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III۔ 570 – 526 BC
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
Son of Amasis II۔ Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed. 526 – 525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty[سودھو]

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Metsuire Cambyses (Cambyses II)
Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC 525 – 521 BC
Petubastis III
A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta 522/21 – 520 BC
Smerdis (Bardiya) Son of کورش اعظم 522 – 521 BC
Setutre Darius I the Great
- 521 – 486 BC
Xerxes I the Great
- 486 – 465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465 – 464 BC
اردشیراول Longhand
- 464 – 424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424 – 423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424 – 423 BC
Darius II
424 – 404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Image Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. 404 – 398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I
Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed. 398 – 393 BC
- 393 BC
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)
Overthrew his predecessor Psammuthes. Father of Nefaarud II. 393 – 380 BC
Nefaarud II Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor. 380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty[سودھو]

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos. 380 – 362 BC
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)
Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta. 362 – 360 BC
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)
Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[۷۱] 360 – 343 BC

Thirty-first Dynasty[سودھو]

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho، the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time 343–338 BC
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338–336 BC
Khababash Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia 338–335 BC
Darius III Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC 336–332 BC

Argead Dynasty[سودھو]

The مقدونیہ (قدیم مملکت)ians under سکندر اعظم ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great)
مقدونیہ (قدیم مملکت) conquered Persia and Egypt 332–323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323–317 BC
Haaibre Alexander IV
Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317–309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty[سودھو]

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies، ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency)۔ The most famous member of this dynasty was قلوپطرہ، who in modern times is known simply as قلوپطرہ who was successively the consort of جولیس سیزر and after Caesar's death, of مارک انتھونی، and had children with both of them. Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans. Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from ستمبر 2, 47 BC. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of جولیس سیزر، after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on اگست 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on اگست 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the رومی شہنشاہ آگسٹس، but the historical evidence does not exist.

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy I Soter Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305–285 BC
Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I ?–285 BC
Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos - 288–246 BC
Arsinoe I Wife of Ptolemy II 284/281-c. 274 BC
Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277–270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246–222 BC
Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III 244/243–222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222–204 BC
Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220–204 BC
Hugronaphor Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 205–199 BC
Ankhmakis Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 199–185 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC 204–180 BC
Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193–176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Died 145 BC 180–164 BC
Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI 175–164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Proclaimed king by اسکندریہns in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC 171–163 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC 163–145 BC
Cleopatra II Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. 163–127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145–144 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 145–131 BC
Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142–131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 127–116 BC
Cleopatra III Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127–107 BC
Cleopatra II Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124–116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Died 80 BC 116–110 BC
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116–115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Died 88 BC 110–109 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81–80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80– 58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV 79–68 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII 58–57 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but has him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC. 58–55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55–51 BC
قلوپطرہ Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 51–30 BC
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51–47 BC
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48–47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47–44 BC
Ptolemy XV Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over. 44–30 BC


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  9. Wilkinson (1999) p. 84
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  18. [۳] King Khasekhemwy
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  33. Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 23–25
  34. Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 25–26
  35. [۴] Amenemhat I
  36. Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 28–35
  37. Murnane (1977) p.2
  38. Murnane (1977) p.7
  39. Murnane (1977) p.9
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