مجاہدین خلق

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People's Mojahedin Organization
سازمان مجاهدين خلق
مخففMKO, MEK, PMOI
رہنماMaryam Rajavi and Massoud Rajavi[lower-alpha ۱]
سیکرٹری جنرلZohreh Akhyani[۳]
نعرہعربی: فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا "God Has Preferred The Mujahideen Over Those Who Remain [behind] With A Great Reward." [قرآن 4:95]
تاسیس۵ ستمبر ۱۹۶۵؛ 57 سال پہلے (۱۹۶۵-۰۹-05)
تقسیم ازFreedom Movement[۴]
صدر دفتر
پیرس، فرانس (1981–1986;[۵] 2003–)
اخبارMojahed[۶]
Military wingNational Liberation Army (NLA)
Political wingNational Council of Resistance (NCR)
رکنیت  (2011)5,000 to 13,500 (DoD estimate)[۵]
نظریات
سیاسی حیثیتبایاں بازو
مذہباہل تشیع
جماعت دا پرچم
حدود

حدودزمرہ:تصویر کا متروک پیرامیٹر استعمال کرنے والے صفحات
ویب سائٹ
www.Mojahedin.org
مجاہدین خلق
Black ستمبر، انقلاب ایران، Iran hostage crisis، Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution، ایران عراق جنگ، 1991 uprisings in Iraq، 2003 invasion of Iraq، 2011 Camp Ashraf raid، 2013 Camp Ashraf attack، Iran–Israel proxy conflict، Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict چ شریک
متحرک1971–1977[۱۱]
1979[۱۲]present[۱۳]
Since 20 جون 1987 as NLA[۱۴]
آگو
کاروائیاں دے علاقےایران and عراق[۱۸]
قوتBrigade (at peak)[۱۹]
اتحادی
مخالفین
لڑائیاں تے جنگاںOperation Eternal Light

مجاہدین خلق ایران ایرانی نظام د‏‏ی اک مخالف تنظیم اے جس د‏‏ی بنیاد 1965ء وچ چند جدت پسند ایرانیاں دے ہتھو‏ں پئی، شاہ ایران دا تختہ الٹنے وچ اس تنظیم نے اہ‏م کردار ادا کيتا، 80 د‏‏ی دہائی دے شروع وچ اس تنظیم نے اسلامی جمہوریہ ایران دے خلاف جنگ شروع د‏‏ی تاکہ اک ڈیموکریٹک اسلامی مملکت دا قیام عمل وچ لیایا جاسک‏‏ے، انہاں دے عسکری کیمپ شمالی عراق وچ نيں، اس تنظیم دے حالیہ سربراہ مسعود رجوی ني‏‏‏‏ں۔

حوالے[سودھو]

حواشی
  1. Since 1993, they are “Co–equal Leader”[۱] however Massoud Rajavi has disappeared in 2003 and leadership of the group has practically passed to his wife Maryam Rajavi.[۲]
حوالے
  1. (2012) Iran's Revolutionary Guard: The Threat That Grows While America Sleeps. Potomac Books, Inc. ISBN 1-59797-701-2. 
  2. (2009) Historical Dictionary of Terrorism, 3, Historical Dictionaries of War, Revolution, and Civil Unrest, Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-6311-1. 
  3. "Annual Congress elects Zohreh Akhyani as new Secretary General". NCR Iran. 2011-09-08. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226045935/https://www.ncr-iran.org/en/ncri-statements/iran-resistance/11213-pmoimek-abbual-congress-elects-zohreh-akhyani-as-new-secretary-general#PMOI(MEK). Retrieved on
    2013-01-05. 
  4. ۴.۰ ۴.۱ Houchang E. Chehabi (1990). Iranian Politics and Religious Modernism: The Liberation Movement of Iran Under the Shah and Khomeini. I.B.Tauris, 211. ISBN 1-85043-198-1. 
  5. ۵.۰ ۵.۱ Aaron Schwartz (اپریل 2014). "National Security and the Protection of Constitutional Liberties: How the Foreign Terrorist Organization List Satisfies Procedural Due Process". The Penn State Journal of Law & International Affair 3 (1): 293–323. ISSN 2168-7951. http://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=jlia. 
  6. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے DUP لئی۔
  7. Eileen Barker (2016). Revisionism and Diversification in New Religious Movements. Routledge, 174. ISBN 1-317-06361-9. “Looking at the original official ideology of the group, one notices some sort of ideological opportunism within their 'mix and match' set of beliefs.” 
  8. ۸.۰ ۸.۱ Mehrzad Boroujerdi (1996). Iranian Intellectuals and the West: The Tormented Triumph of Nativism. Syracuse University Press, 117. ISBN 978-0-8156-0433-4. “۔۔۔the ideological worldview of Mojahedin rested upon two of the main characteristics of Iranian social thought at the time: nationalism and populism.” 
  9. The State and Revolution in Iran (RLE Iran D). Taylor & Francis, 74. ISBN 978-1-136-82089-2. “Thus the Mojahedin's opposition to Western influence and its call for economic freedom from the West led it to reject the system of capitalism and to present a radical interpretation of Islam. This was also true of the radical Islamic nationalist movement as a whole.” 
  10. Fred Reinhard Dallmayr (199). Border Crossings: Toward a Comparative Political Theory. Lexington Books, 136. ISBN 978-0-7391-0043-1. “To provide an Islamic justification for their populist program, Mojahedin often utilized the euphemism coined by Shariati.” 
  11. (2013) Reformers and Revolutionaries in Modern Iran: New Perspectives on the Iranian Left. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-32890-7. 
  12. Abrahamian, Ervand (1989). Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin. I.B. Tauris, 171–172. ISBN 1-85043-077-2. 
  13. (2009) Global Politics as if People Mattere. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 97. ISBN 0-7425-6658-7. “US. military leaders in Iraq signed a cease-fire agreement with the MKO in اپریل 2003 that allowed it to keep all its weapons, including hundreds of tanks and thousands of light arms, as long as it did not attack US. forces” 
  14. John H. Lorentz (2010). "Chronology", The A to Z of Iran, The A to Z Guide Series 209. Scarecrow Press, جون 1978. ISBN 1-4617-3191-7. 
  15. (2008) "Iran-Germany Relations", Iran-Europe Relations: Challenges and Opportunities. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-06219-2. 
  16. ۱۶.۰ ۱۶.۱ (2015) "Iran", Political Handbook of the World 2015. CQ Press. ISBN 1-4833-7155-7. 
  17. (2003) "Honoring a Great Hero for Iran's Freedom, World Peace and Security: Hon. Edolphus Towns of New York in the House of Represetitives, 27 مارچ 2003", United States of America Congressional Record. Government Printing Office. 
  18. ۱۸.۰ ۱۸.۱ Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO); National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA); People's Mojahedin of Iran (PMOI); National Council of Resistance (NCR); National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI); Muslim Iranian Student's Society, Global Security, retrieved 5 نومبر 2016  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  19. Yaghoub Nemati Voroujeni (Summer 2012), "Mujahadeen-e-Khalq (MEK) Organization in the Imposed War", Negin-e-Iran (in Persian) 41 (11): 75–96 
  20. Mark Edmond Clark (2016), "An Analysis of the Role of the Iranian Diaspora in the Financial Support System of the Mujahedin-e-Khalq", in David Gold, Terrornomics, Routledge, p. 65, ISBN 1-317-04590-4 
  21. *سیمور ہرش (5 اپریل 2012). "Our Men in Iran?". دی نیو یارکر. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226045946/https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/our-men-in-iran. Retrieved on
  22. *"The Mujahedin-e Khalq in Iraq: a policy conundrum". RAND Corporation. 2009. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG871.pdf. 
  23. Arie Perliger, William L. Eubank (2006), "Terrorism in Iran and Afghanistan: The Seeds of the Global Jihad", Middle Eastern Terrorism, Infobase Publishing, pp. 41–42, ISBN 978-1-4381-0719-6 
  24. ۲۴.۰ ۲۴.۱ United States. Dept. of State. International Information Administration. Documentary Studies Section, United States Information Agency, United States Information Agency. Special Materials Section, United States. International Communication Agency (1980). Problems of Communism 29. Documentary Studies Section, International Information Administration. “There is evidence that as earlt as 1969 it received arms and training from the PLO, especially Yasir Arafat's Fatah group. Some of the earliest Mojahedin supporters took part in black ستمبر in 1970 in Jordan.” 
  25. ۲۵.۰ ۲۵.۱ Mark Edmond Clark (2016), "An Analysis of the Role of the Iranian Diaspora in the Financial Support System of the Mujahedin-e-Khalq", in David Gold, Terrornomics, Routledge, pp. 67–68, ISBN 1-317-04590-4 
  26. ۲۶.۰ ۲۶.۱ Anoushiravan Ehteshami, Mahjoob Zweiri (2012), Iran's Foreign Policy: From Khatami to Ahmadinejad, Sussex Academic Press, p. 135, ISBN 0-86372-415-9 

کتابیات[سودھو]

  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton University Press. 
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1989). Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin. IB Tauris. 
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (Oct 1, 1992). The Iranian Mojahedin. Yale University Press. 
  • Keddie, Nikkie (1981). Roots of Revolution. 
  • Moin, Baqer (2001). Khomeini. Thomas Dunne. 
  • Stevenson, Struan (2015). Self-Sacrifice – Life with the Iranian Mojahedin. Birlinn, Edinburgh, ISBN 978 1 78027 288 7. 

باہرلے جوڑ[سودھو]