↑Cordesman, Anthony H (2007). Gulf military forces in an era of asymmetric wars2. Greenwood Publishing Group, 111. ISBN 978-0-275-99250-7.: "The royal family, Al Sabah, has two branches—Al Jaber and Al Salem—and has traditionally alternated in ruling Kuwait. This tradition, however, has changed following the death of Jaber Al Sabah [1977–2006]."
↑ (1998) Political Risk Yearbook, 1998. Political Risk Services, 48. ISBN 978-1-85271-371-3.: "The two branches of the Al-Sabah family, the Jabers and the Salems, have traditionally alternated their rule, one providing the emir and the other the crown prince (also serving as prime minister)."
↑Constitution of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Art. 50.
↑Cordesman, Anthony H (2009). Saudi Arabia: national security in a troubled region. ABC-CLIO, 9. ISBN 978-0-313-38076-1.: "In اکتوبر 2006, King Abdullah issued a new succession law that amended the 1992 Basic Law and formalized the process by creating the Allegiance Commission. The new law both defines how a king will choose among possible candidates and provides a formal way for developing a consensus to choose the king's successor. The Allegiance Commission will select a king and crown prince upon the death or incapacitation of either. This commission expands the role of the ruling family in the selection process. ... It is composed of some 35 sons and grandsons of the late founder of the Kingdom, عبدالعزیز ابن سعود, who will vote in secret ballots on who could and could not be eligible to be future kings and crown princes."
↑Shoup, John A (2009). Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab States Today: A-J. Greenwood Publishing Group, 323. ISBN 978-0-313-34444-2.. "The Al Nahyan ... are a branch of the Al Bu Falah tribe of the Bani Yas confederation, and although they have been a small section of the tribe, the Al Nahyan have traditionally provided the paramount shaykh for the confederation."
↑ 90.090.1Constitution of the United Arab Emirates, Art. 51 & 54.
↑Noack, Sascha (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the United Arab Emirates. GRIN Verlag, 16. ISBN 978-3-638-79766-5.
↑"Akihito" is the current emperor's given name, but it is not his regnal name, and he is never referred to as this in Japanese. The era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei", and according to custom he will be renamed "Emperor Heisei" following his death.
↑The Japanese emperor does not have a family name. The use of the name "Yamato" for the household derives from the ancient Yamato Court. It is used often as a name for the imperial dynasty, but has no official basis.
↑Succession is based upon primogeniture. However, the reigning king may also select his successor from among eligible princes.
↑The heir is appointed by the reigning emir, and the nomination must also be approved by a majority of members in the National Assembly. The throne is also traditionally alternated between the two main branches of the Al Sabah family: the Al Salem and Al Jaber. The current emir is of the Al Jaber branch.
↑Coronation took place 31 اکتوبر 1997. Has previously reigned as king from 12 نومبر 1990 until 25 جنوری 1995.
↑Formally enthroned on 15 اگست 1990. Prior to his accession, Hans-Adam had served as prince regent since 26 اگست 1984. On 15 اگست 2004, the prince formally appointed his son Prince Alois as regent, in preparation for his succession to the throne, but remained head of state in accordance with the constitution.
↑Official title: Yang di-Pertuan Agong. It roughly translates as "Supreme Head of State", and is commonly rendered in English as "King".
↑Elected in اکتوبر 2011. Term of office started on 13 دسمبر 2011. Abdul Halim has previously reigned as king from 21 ستمبر 1970 to 20 ستمبر 1975; he is the first sultan to hold the throne twice.
↑The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected to a five-year term by and from amongst the nine hereditary rulers of the جزیرہ نما ملائیشیا, who form the Council of Rulers. The position has to date been, by informal agreement, systematically rotated between the nine; the order was originally based on یانگ دی پرتوان آگونگ.
↑Albert II was formally enthroned as prince in a two-part ceremony, in accordance with tradition, on 12 جولائی and 19 نومبر 2005. He had previously been serving as regent since 31 مارچ 2005.
↑Formally enthroned on 21 جنوری 1991, and consecrated on 23 جون 1991. Prior to his accession, Harald had served as prince regent since 1 جون 1990.
↑Elizabeth II previously reigned over Papua New Guinea as Queen of Australia, from 6 فروری 1952 until the nation's independence and the creation of a separate crown.
↑Monarchy is constitutional by law, but remains مطلق in practice.
↑Succession is determined by consensus within the House of Saud as to who will be Crown Prince. This consensus may change depending on the Crown Prince's actions.
↑Succession is subject to customary law, and does not follow primogeniture. A council of elders selects who among the reigning king's wives will be mother of the next king. This woman will succeed as Ndlovukati upon her son's ascension to throne, and will rule alongside him for the duration of his reign. The king's first two wives are considered ineligible.
↑The Al Nahyan are a branch of the Al Falahi, a clan of the Yas tribe.
↑The فہرست وزرائے اعظم متحدہ عرب امارات is the head of the government. However, with the consent of the Supreme Council, the office is appointed by the President, who retains considerable power.
↑According to the Constitution, the President of the United Arab Emirates is elected by the Federal Supreme Council from among the individual rulers of the seven emirates. However, by informal agreement the Presidency is always passed to the head of the Al Nahyan clan, the Emir of Abu Dhabi (see constituent monarchs), which makes it a de facto hereditary position. In addition, the appointed Prime Minister has always been the head of the Al Maktoum clan and Emir of Dubai.