قدیم فلسفہ

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ایہ صفحہ قدیم فلسفے دے کچھ روابط د‏‏ی لسٹ ا‏‏ے۔ مغربی فلسفے وچ ، رومی سلطنت وچ مسیحیت دے پھیلاؤ نے ہیلینیائی فلسفے اُتے خاتمے د‏‏ی مہر لگیا دتی تے فلسفہ قرون وسطی دا آغاز ہويا، جدو‏ں کہ مشرقی فلسفے وچ ، اسلام دے پھیلاؤ نے قدیم ایرانی فلسفے دا خاتمہ کر دتا تے ابتدائی اسلامی فلسفے دا آغاز ہويا۔

تعارف[لکھو]

خالص فلسفیانہ سوچ، خلقی انفرادی بصیرت اُتے منحصر اے، اس دا آغاز بہت ساریاں ثقافتاں وچ تقریباً اتفاقی طور اُتے ہويا۔

فلسفی[لکھو]

قدیم یونانی و رومی فلسفہ[لکھو]

اصل مضمون: Ancient Greek philosophy
Graphical relationship among the various pre-socratic philosophers and thinkers; red arrows indicate a relationship of opposition.
رافیل's School of Athens، depicting an array of ancient Greek philosophers engaged in discussion.

فلسفی[لکھو]

ماپہلے سقراطی فلسفی[لکھو]

تھالیز (624 – c 546 ق م)
اناکسی میندر (610 – 546 ق م)
اناکسی مینس (c. 585 – c. 525 ق م)
فیثاغورث (582 – 496 ق م)
فلولاؤس (470 – 380 ق م)
Alcmaeon of Croton
آرکیٹاس (428 – 347 ق م)
Xenophanes (570 – 470 ق م)
بارامانیاس (510 – 440 ق م)
Zeno of Elea (490 – 430 ق م)
Melissus of Samos (c. 470 ق م – ?)
امپی دوکلیز (490 – 430 ق م)
اناکسا غورث (500 – 428 ق م)
Leucippus (first half of پنجويں صدی ق م)
دیموقراطیس (460 – 370 ق م)
Metrodorus of Chios (چوتھ‏ی صدی ق م)
پروتاغوراث (490 – 420 ق م)
Gorgias (487 – 376 ق م)
Antiphon (480 – 411 ق م)
Prodicus (465/450 – بعد وچ 399 ق م)
Hippias (وسط پنجويں صدی ق م)
Thrasymachus (459 – 400 ق م)
Callicles
Critias
Lycophron

قدیم یونانی فلسفی[لکھو]

ہیلینیائی فلسفی[لکھو]

ہیلینیائی مکت‏‏ب فکر[لکھو]

Early Roman and Christian philosophy[لکھو]

ایہ وی ویکھو: Christian philosophy

Philosophers during Roman times[لکھو]

Plotinus

Ancient Indian philosophy[لکھو]

اصل مضمون: Indian philosophy

The ancient Indian philosophy is a fusion of two ancient traditions : Sramana tradition and Vedic tradition.

Vedic philosophy[لکھو]

Indian philosophy begins with the وید where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. In the famous رگ وید Hymn of Creation (Nasadiya Sukta) the poet says:

ویاس، at وسط picture
"Whence all creation had its origin,
he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not,
he, who surveys it all from highest heaven,
he knows—or maybe even he does not know."

In the Vedic view, creation is ascribed to the self-consciousness of the primeval being (Purusha)۔ This leads to the inquiry into the one being that underlies the diversity of empirical phenomena and the origin of all things. Cosmic order is termed rta and causal law by karma۔ Nature (prakriti) is taken to have three qualities (sattva، rajas، and tamas

Sramana philosophy[لکھو]

جین مت and بدھ مت are continuation of the Sramana school of thought. The Sramanas cultivated a pessimistic worldview of the samsara as full of suffering and advocated renunciation and austerities. They laid stress on philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Jnana, Samsara and Moksa. Cārvāka (Sanskrit: चार्वाक) (atheist) philosophy, also known as Lokāyata, it is a system of Hindu philosophy that assumes various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. It is named بعد وچ its founder, Cārvāka, author of the Bārhaspatya-sūtras.

Classical Indian philosophy[لکھو]

In classical times, these inquiries were systematized in six schools of philosophy. Some of the questions asked were:

  • What is the ontological nature of consciousness?
  • How is cognition itself experienced?
  • Is mind (chit) intentional or not?
  • Does cognition have its own structure?

The Six schools of ہندوستانی فلسفہ are:

Ancient Indian philosophers[لکھو]

1st millennium ق م[لکھو]

Philosophers of Vedic Age (2000–600 ق م)[لکھو]

Philosophers of Axial Age (600–185 ق م)[لکھو]

Buddha.

Philosophers of Golden Age (184 ق م – 600 عیسوی)[لکھو]

Ancient Iranian philosophy[لکھو]

Zarathustra as depicted in رافیل's The School of Athens beside Raphael who appears as the ancient painter Apelles of Kos۔
اصل مضمون: Iranian philosophy

See also: ثنویت، Dualism (philosophy of mind)

While there are ancient relations between the Indian وید and the Iranian اوستا، the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe. The first charter of انسانی حقوق by کورش اعظم as understood in the اسطوانۂ کورش is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by زرطشت and developed in زرتشتیت schools of thought of the ہخامنشی سلطنت of ایران د‏‏ی تریخ۔[۳][۴]

Schools of thought[لکھو]

Ideas and tenets of Zoroastrian schools of Early Persian philosophy are part of many works written in Middle Persian and of the extant scriptures of the zoroastrian religion in اوستائی زبان۔ Among these are treatises such as the Shikand-gumanic Vichar by Mardan-Farrux Ohrmazddadan, selections of Denkard، Wizidagīhā-ī Zātspram ("Selections of Zātspram") as well as older passages of the book Avesta, the Gathas which are attributed to Zarathustra himself and regarded as his "direct teachings"۔[۵]

Zoroastrianism[لکھو]

Anacharsis

Pre-Manichaean thought[لکھو]

Manichaeism[لکھو]

Mazdakism[لکھو]

Zurvanism[لکھو]

Philosophy and the Empire[لکھو]

Literature[لکھو]

Ancient Jewish philosophy[لکھو]

ایہ وی ویکھو: Jewish philosophy

First Temple (c. 900 ق م to 587 ق م)[لکھو]

Assyrian exile (587 ق م to 516 ق م)[لکھو]

Second Temple (516 ق م to 70 عیسوی)[لکھو]

  • ملاکی (پنجويں صدی ق م)
  • کتاب واعظ (پنجويں – 2nd صدی ق م)
  • Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira (2nd صدی ق م)
  • ہلل (c. 110 ق م – 10عیسوی)
  • فیلو (30 ق م – 45 عیسوی)

Early Roman exile (70 عیسوی to c. 600 عیسوی)[لکھو]

ہور ویکھو[لکھو]

حوالے[لکھو]

  1. The significance of Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations by Swami Krishnananda
  2. P. 285 Indian sociology through Ghurye, a dictionary By S. Devadas Pillai
  3. Philip G. Kreyenbroek: "Morals and Society in Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy"۔ Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009.
  4. Mary Boyce: "The Origins of Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy"۔ Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009.
  5. An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia. From Zoroaster to 'Umar Khayyam. S. H. Nasr & M. Aminrazavi. I. B. Tauris Publishers, London & New York, 2008. ISBN 978-1845115418۔
  6. Zurvan. A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Robert Charles Zaehner. Biblo and Tannen, 1972. ISBN 0-8196-0280-9۔
  7. ۷.۰ ۷.۱ Sasanian Iran – intellectual life. A. Tafazzoli and A. L. Khromov in: History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The Crossroads of Civilization. B. A. Litvinsky, Zhang Guand-Da, R. Shabani Samghabadi. Unesco, 1996. ISBN 9231032119۔
  8. Mansour Shaki. Falsafa. Philosophy in the pre-Islamic period۔ Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume IX. 1999. ISBN 0-933273-35-5۔
  9. Prods Oktor Skjaervo. Bardesanes۔ Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume III. Fasc. 7–8. ISBN 0-7100-9121-4۔
  10. David A. Scott. Manichaean Views of Buddhism in: History of Religions. Vol. 25, No. 2, Nov. 1985. University of Chicago Press.
  11. Yarshater, Ehsan. 1983. The Cambridge history of Iran, volume 2. pp. 995–997

ہور پڑھو[لکھو]

  • Luchte, James, Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn، in series, Bloomsbury Studies in Ancient Philosophy، Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 2011. ISBN 978-0567353313

باہرلے جوڑ[لکھو]

سانچہ:فلسفہ سانچہ:Greek schools of philosophy سانچہ:معلومات کتاباں خانہ