قومی کھیل

آزاد انسائیکلوپیڈیا، وکیپیڈیا توں
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قومی کھیل (انگریزی: national sport یا national pastime) اوہ کھیل جو کسی ملک د‏‏ی اندرونی سبھیاچار دا آئینہ دار سمجھیا جاندا ا‏‏ے۔ بعض کھیل قانونی سطح اُتے قومی کھیل ہُندے نيں جداں پاکستان وچ ہاکی تے بعض جگہ انہاں د‏‏ی حیثیت قانونی قومی کھیل د‏‏ی نئيں ہُندی جداں امریکا وچ بیس بال یا برطانیہ وچ فٹبال۔

قانونی طور اُتے قومی کھیل[لکھو]

ملک کھیل جس سال
قومی کھیل قرار پایا
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina Pato 1953[۱]
Flag of the Bahamas.svg Bahamas Sloop sailing 1993[۲]
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh کبڈی ("قومی کھیل") 1972[۳]
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil Capoeira 1972[۴]
Flag of Canada.svg Canada Lacrosse (گرما)، آئس ہاکی (سرما) 1994[۵]
Flag of Chile.svg Chile Chilean rodeo 1962[۶]
Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia Tejo 2000[۷]
Flag of Iran.svg Iran Varzesh-e Bastani، پہلوانی 1976[۸]
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico Charrería 1933[۹]
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines Arnis 2009[۱۰]
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico Paso Fino ("autochthonous sport") 1966[۱۱]
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka والی بال 1991[۱۲]
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal Dandi Biyo 1973[۱۳]
Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay Destrezas Criollas
(Creole [i.e. gaucho] Skills[۱۴])
2006[۱۵]

عملی طور اُتے قومی کھیل[لکھو]

(انہاں نو‏ں حالے تک انہاں ملکاں وچ قانونی طور اُتے قومی کھیل د‏‏ی حیثیت حاصل نئيں ہوئی)

ملک کھیل
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan بزکشی[۱۶]
Flag of Anguilla.svg Anguilla Yacht racing[۱۷]
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua and Barbuda کرکٹ[۱۸]
Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados کرکٹ[۱۹]
Flag of Bermuda.svg Bermuda کرکٹ[۲۰]
Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan تیر اندازی[۲۱]
Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba بیس بال[۲۲][۲۳][۲۴]
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic بیس بال[۲۵]
Flag of England.svg England کرکٹ[۲۶]
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia باسکٹ بال[۲۷]
Flag of Finland.svg Finland Pesäpallo[۲۸]
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia رگبی یونین[۲۹]
Flag of Grenada.svg Grenada کرکٹ[۳۰]
Flag of Guyana.svg Guyana کرکٹ[۳۱]
Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary فٹبال[۳۲] or واٹر پولو[۳۳]
Flag of India.svg India ہاکی[۳۴][۳۵][۳۶]
Flag of Israel.svg Israel فٹبال[۳۷]
Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland Gaelic games[۳۸][۳۹][۴۰]
Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica کرکٹ[۴۱]
Flag of Japan.svg Japan سومو کشتی[۴۲]
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea Taekwondo[۴۳]
Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia باسکٹ بال (summer), آئس ہاکی (winter),[۴۴]
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania باسکٹ بال[۴۵][۴۶]
Flag of Madagascar.svg Madagascar رگبی یونین[۴۷][۴۸]
Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius Football[۴۹]
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia تیر اندازی, Mongolian wrestling, گھڑ دوڑ[۵۰][۵۱]
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand رگبی یونین[۵۲]
Flag of Norway.svg Norway Cross-country skiing[۵۳][۵۴]
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan ہاکی[۵۵][۵۶]
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea Rugby league[۵۷][۵۸]
Flag of Peru.svg Peru Paleta Frontón[۵۹]
Flag of Romania.svg Romania Oină[۶۰]
Flag of Russia.svg Russia Bandy[۶۱]
Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland گولف[۶۲]
Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia Alpine skiing[۶۳][۶۳]
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey Oil wrestling[۶۴] & Cirit [۶۵]
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Turks and Caicos Islands کرکٹ[۶۶]
Flag of the United States.svg United States بیس بال[۶۷][۶۸][۶۹]
Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela بیس بال[۷۰][۷۱]
Flag of Wales (1959–present).svg Wales رگبی یونین[۷۲]

ہور ویکھو[لکھو]

حوالے[لکھو]

  1. "Argentina Decree Nº 17468 of 16 September 1953". Federación Argentina de Pato. http://web.archive.org/web/20190111032459/http://pato.org.ar/es/el-deporte/decreto-n-17-468/. Retrieved on 16 October 2012. 
  2. Craton, Michael (1998). Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People. University of Georgia Press, 471. ISBN 0-8203-2284-9. 
  3. "Banglapedia: Kabadi". Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023903/http://a-bangladesh.com/. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "Ha-du-du was given the name kabadi and the status of National Game in 1972." 
  4. Lowell, John (1992). Ring of Liberation: Deceptive Discourse in Brazilian Capoeira. University of Chicago Press, 61. ISBN 0-226-47683-9. 
  5. National Sports of Canada Act S.C. 1994, c. 16, Justice Laws Website, National Government of Canada
  6. Moreira Recchione, Alberto (December 2007). "La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile" (in Spanish). Revista de urbanismo (University of Chile) (17). ISSN 0717-5051. http://revistaurbanismo.uchile.cl/CDA/urb_completa/0,1313,ISID%3D728%26IDG%3D1%26ACT%3D1%26PRT%3D20871,00.html. Retrieved on ۱۴ جولائی ۲۰۰۸. "A reconocerse, en 1962, el rodeo como deporte nacional y oficial [10 de enero de 1962, oficio N°269 del Consejo Nacional de Deportes y Comité Olímpico de Chile]". 
  7. "Colombia Law 613 of 4 September 2000". Global Legal Information Network. http://www.glin.gov/view.action?glinID=73716. Retrieved on 14 July 2008. 
  8. فدراسیون کشتی جمهوری اسلامی ایران
  9. "La Charrería "Nuestro Deporte Nacional"" (in Spanish). Mexican Department of Tourism. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023918/http://www.sectur.gob.mx/wb2/sectur/sect_Celebracion_del_Dia_Mundial_del_Turismo. Retrieved on 14 July 2008. "El año de 1933 fue muy importante, ya que el general Abelardo L. Rodríguez, emite un decreto presidencial, dando a la Charrería el título de único Deporte Nacional." 
  10. "Republic Act No. 9850: An Act declaring Arnis as the national martial art and sport of the Philippines". http://www.filipiniana.net/ArtifactView.do?artifactID=L20100000001&query=null&page=1. Retrieved on 26 June 2010. 
  11. "Puerto Rico Act 64 of 2000, S.B. 1856" (Portable Document Format). Office of Legislative Services of Puerto Rico. 11 April 2000. p. 1. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023823/http://www.oslpr.org/download/en/2000/0064.pdf%20. Retrieved on 14 July 2008. "In 1966, the Public Parks and Recreation Administration and the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee awarded official recognition of the “paso fino” horse riding sport as the autochthonous sport of Puerto Rico." 
  12. Fernando, Leslie (3 June 2005). "Sponsors President's Gold Cup tourney: Dialog assures future of VB". Daily News (Sri Lanka). https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023818/http://www.dailynews.lk/2005/06/03/spo01.htm%20. Retrieved on ۱۴ جولائی ۲۰۰۸. "Way back in 1991 volleyball was declared as the national sport of Sri Lanka but it was only name sake." 
  13. Fernando, Leslie (3 June 2005). "Sponsors President's Gold Cup tourney: Dialog assures future of VB". Daily News (Nepal). https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023818/http://www.dailynews.lk/2005/06/03/spo01.htm%20. Retrieved on ۱۴ جولائی ۲۰۰۸. "Way back in 1973 Dandi Biyo was declared as the national sport of Nepal but it was only name sake." 
  14. Aeberhard, Danny (2001). The Rough Guide to Argentina, 198. ISBN 1-85828-569-0. “"displays of traditional gaucho skills (destrezas criollas)"” 
  15. "Uruguay Law 17958 of 21 April 2006". Global Legal Information Network. http://www.glin.gov/view.action?glinID=177996. Retrieved on 14 July 2008. 
  16. "Buzkashi: The National Game of Afghanis". Embassy of Afghanistan, Canberra. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023845/http://www.afghanembassy.net/buz.php%20. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. 
  17. "Boat Racing Season Officially Opens". The Anguillian. 3 March 2007. http://www.festival.ai/article/articleview/4525/1/127/. Retrieved on ۲۱ جولائی ۲۰۰۸. "Director of Sports, Alkins Rogers, […] reported that the Government recognizes boat racing as the national sport of Anguilla and was giving financial resources for its development." 
  18. "Antiguans and Barbudans". everyculture.com. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023822/https://www.everyculture.com/wc/Afghanistan-to-Bosnia-Herzegovina/Antiguans-and-Barbudans.html. Retrieved on 10 July 2008. "Cricket, a left-over from the British rule, is the national sport of Antigua and Barbuda." 
  19. "Barbados: Sports". Government of Barbados. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023942/http://www.barbados.gov.bb/sports.htm%20. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "The national sport of Barbados is cricket" 
  20. Luke, Will (March 2007). "Cricket by association". The Wisden Cricketer. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226024016/http://www.espncricinfo.com/wisdencricketer/content/story/281649.html. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "Bermuda are one of the few sides who count cricket as a national sport." 
  21. "National Symbols". Bhutan Portal. Government of Bhutan. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023827/http://www.bhutan.gov.bt/government/abt_nationalsymbols.php%20. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "National Game: The national sport of Bhutan is archery." 
  22. Gonzalez Echevarria, Roberto (1999). "A Cuban Belle Époque", The Pride of Havana: A History of Cuban Baseball. Oxford University Press, 76. ISBN 0-19-514605-0. “Baseball is so ingrained in Cuba that it has thrived as the "national sport" through forty years of a bitterly anti-American revolution.” 
  23. Mckinley, James C., Jr (26 March 1999). "Baseball; Clash of Cultures, Pride and Passion". نیو یارک ٹائمز. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9501E4DE1530F935A15750C0A96F958260. Retrieved on ۲۴ جولائی ۲۰۰۸. "Most Cubans, after all, consider baseball to be their national sport, a game entwined in history with their struggle for independence from Spain and the birth of their nation." 
  24. Castro, Fidel (13 August 1999). "Speech at a meeting with Pan American Games delegation members". cuba.cu. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226024031/http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1999/ing/f130899i.html%20. Retrieved on 24 July 2008. "the game that […] is […] our national sport […] I am talking of baseball" 
  25. "Some facts about the Dominican Republic". Embassy of the Dominican Republic, Washington. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023851/http://www.domrep.org/kids.html%20. Retrieved on 22 July 2008. "Baseball is the Dominican Republic’s national sport." 
  26. Hughes, Simon (9 April 2009). "Cricket losing status as national sport". The Daily Telegraph (London). https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023955/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/cricket/5132934/Cricket-losing-status-as-national-sport.html%20. 
  27. (2007) Lonely Planet Eastern Europe, 9, Lonely Planet, 319. “Basketball is the unofficial national sport” 
  28. "About Finland: General information: Sports". Embassy of Finland, Washington. 11 June 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023958/http://www.finland.org/Unrestricted/Error_Notfound_801.aspx?path=http%3a%2f%2fwww.finland.org%2fPublic%2fdefault.aspx%3f404%3bhttp%3a%2f%2fwww.finland.org%3a80%2fdoc%2fen%2fabout%2fgeneral%2fsports.asp&errorguid=1418153c-5817-49cc-a94f-8e3c2d41fa51. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "the national sport, “pesäpallo”" 
  29. There is far more to savour in European rugby union than just the Six Nations The Guardian
  30. "Batting For Grenada". Grenada Life. Grenada Board of Tourism. March 2007. pp. 38. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023923/http://azzurracastlegrenada.com/?option=com_content&task=view&id=32&Itemid=69%20. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "in the first Grenada Cricket Classics [, h]eroes such as Sir Viv Richards, Joel Garner and Curtley Ambrose came together to promote what is considered by many to be the national sport in Grenada." 
  31. "Games". Guyana Tourism Authority. https://web.archive.org/web/20080606075705/http://guyana-tourism.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=96&Itemid=178. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "Cricket lovely Cricket! One cannot miss out on Guyana’s national sport without participating in a game of cricket while in Guyana." 
  32. سانچہ:Cite article
  33. (2014) Contemporary Sport Management, 5th, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 257. ISBN 978-1-4504-6965-4. 
  34. Basra, Sukhwant (11 March 2008). "No National status, except in NCERT textbooks". dnaindia. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023833/https://www.dnaindia.com/sports/report-no-national-status-except-in-ncert-textbooks-1155419. Retrieved on 15 July 2008. "The status of hockey as the national sport is not enshrined in any official proclamation by the Government of India. The NCERT textbook for Class XI does […] state that India’s national game is hockey and that, in a way, does make for an official take on the issue." 
  35. "Citizens: Sports: Hockey". National Portrait of India. Government of India. http://india.gov.in/hindi/citizen/sports_hockey.php. Retrieved on 22 July 2008. "Hockey, the National Sport of the Country is one of the most religiously followed games in India." 
  36. A 2012 article in the The Times of India argued that hockey is no longer the national sport: Mahanta, Bhaskar (28 September 2012). "What is the National Game of India?". The Times of India. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023959/https://www.indiatimes.com/others/what-is-the-national-game-of-india-41732.html%20/. Retrieved on ۷ مئی ۲۰۱۳. 
  37. "Football in Israel". AsiaRooms. 21 February 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226024003/https://www.laterooms.com/. Retrieved on 24 February 2012. "The popularity of Football in Israel is sky-high and is the most popular sport of the nation by a distance. Football in Israel is the unofficial national sport of the nation and developed as an organized sport in the country during the period when the British controlled the administration or was the days of the British Mandate." 
  38. "RTÉ Secures Comprehensive GAA Championship Coverage Until 2010". RTÉ Online. 19 February 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023932/https://www.rte.ie/about/pressreleases/2008/0219/gaachampionship2010.html%20. Retrieved on ۲۹ اپریل ۲۰۰۹. "Today's announcement ensures that the public will enjoy quality coverage of our national games across all of RTÉ's media platforms." 
  39. "Adjournment Matters. - Eurathlon Programme.". Seanad Éireann. 22 November 1995. pp. Volume 145. http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/S/0145/S.0145.199511220006.html. Retrieved on 29 April 2009. 
  40. Farrelly, Hugh (15 September 2009). "The most progressive team in Ireland". Scrum.com. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023907/http://www.espnscrum.com/scrum/rugby/story/102547.html%20. Retrieved on 17 September 2009. "It's [the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final] a big deal in Ireland, where Gaelic games are the national sport, but the problem for the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) is that no-one outside the country, save for committed expatriates, gives a fig." 
  41. "History of Jamaica". Jamaican Embassy, Washington. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023843/http://www.embassyofjamaica.org/ABOUThistory.htm%20. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "The legacy of Britain also lives on in Jamaica in many ways […] the game of cricket is the national sport." 
  42. "What Is Sumo?". Kids Web Japan sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. http://web-japan.org/kidsweb/virtual/sumo/sumo01.html. Retrieved on 30 April 2012. 
  43. Li, MacIntosh, Bravo (2012). International Sport Management, 208. “Taekwondo is Korea's national sport” 
  44. "Nacionālie sporta veidi..." (in lv). https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023954/https://nra.lv/zinas/27398-nacionalie-sporta-veidi.htm%20. Retrieved on 15 November 2009. 
  45. Adamkus, Valdas (28 July 2005). "Address at Charles University, Prague". President of Lithuania official website. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226024018/https://www.lrp.lt/en/news.full/5829%20. Retrieved on 24 July 2008. "Lithuania is a country that loves basketball. It is our national sport and we are proud to be reigning European Champions." 
  46. Winn, Luke (15 August 2011). "Lithuania Calling". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1189174/index.htm. Retrieved on ۲۴ اگست ۲۰۱۱. "Basketball is the only sport the 3.2 million Lithuanians truly care about—it's their second religion, after Catholicism—and their success is proportionately stunning." 
  47. "Madagascar take Sevens honours". https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023905/https://www.world.rugby/newsmedia/regional/newsid=53025.html%20. Retrieved on 24 July 2012. 
  48. "14-place jump for Madagascar". https://web.archive.org/web/20181226024014/https://www.planetrugby.com/story/0,25883,3891_7884390,00.html. Retrieved on 24 July 2012. 
  49. Richards, Alexandra.Mauritius: Rodrigues, Réunion. Bradt Travel Guides, 2009, p.90
  50. A wrestling competition dedicated to the Wonder of Mongolian National Wrestling
  51. Mongolian Embassy in the USA
  52. "Sport, Fitness and Leisure". New Zealand Official Yearbook. Statistics New Zealand. 2000. http://www2.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/nzstories.nsf/0/479c4ffcbb884149cc256b1f00001198?OpenDocument. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "Traditionally New Zealanders have excelled in rugby union, which is regarded as the national sport, and track and field athletics." 
  53. Mølster, Odd (1996). "Skiing and the Creation of a Norwegian Identity – part 2". News of Norway, issue 2. Norwegian Embassy, Washington. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023839/https://www.norway.no/en/usa. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. "the national sport could become a fine weapon in time of war. In 1943, Norway's resistance movement won an epochal victory – on skis, of course" 
  54. Berglund, Nina (20 February 2006). "Few cheers for Norway". Aftenposten. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023916/https://www.aftenposten.no/english/sports/article1228843.ece. Retrieved on ۲۱ جولائی ۲۰۰۸. "The scoreboard shows how the Norwegians placed, a performance considered much too poor in a country where cross-country skiing is a national sport." 
  55. "Sport in Pakistan". https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023853/https://www.topendsports.com/world/countries/pakistan.htm. Retrieved on 6 October 2012. 
  56. "Pakistan's Olympic humiliation in national sport". https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023859/https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-19182961. Retrieved on 2014-07-09. 
  57. "PNG vow to upset World Cup odds". Rugby League (Federación Peruana de Frontón). 15 October 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023904/http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/rugby_league/7671217.stm. Retrieved on ۳ جولائی ۲۰۰۹. "But it would still be one of the biggest shocks in World Cup history if Papua New Guinea – the only country to have rugby league as its national sport – were to qualify for the last four." 
  58. "PNG seal 2010 Four Nations place". BBC. 1 November 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023825/http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/rugby_league/8336567.stm. 
  59. "Paleta-Frontón". Club Regatas Lima. Club Regatas Lima. 31 August 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023907/http://www.clubregatas.org.pe/historia/Paleta.htm. Retrieved on 31 August 2009. 
  60. "Oina – sportul naţional uitat" (in Romanian). Adevărul Holding. 18 September 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023842/https://www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/actualitate/articol/oina-sportul-national-uitat%20. Retrieved on 21 November 2012. "Dar nici deciziile luate de autorităţile comuniste nu au salvat sportul naţional românesc de la uitare." 
  61. "Russian bandy players blessed for victory at world championship in Kazan". Tatar-Inform. 21 January 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023911/http://eng.tatar-inform.ru/news/2011/01/21/33986/. Retrieved on 31 August 2009. 
  62. "Alex Salmond quote". Sport Scotland. 31 August 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023930/http://www.sportscotland.org.uk/ChannelNavigation/News/TopicNavigation/Other+press+releases/articles/First+Minister+celebrates+Scotlands+golf+world+champions+as+new+figures+show+big+increase+in+youngst.htm. Retrieved on 25 October 2010. 
  63. ۶۳.۰ ۶۳.۱ Skiing Nation: Towards an Anthropology of Slovenia's National Sport – Kotnik – 2007 – Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism – Wiley Online Library
  64. "Ata Sporu – Güreş". Alaturka.info. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023928/https://www.alaturka.info/tr/akdeniz-boelgesi/spor-ve-eglence/ata-sporu-gueres.html. Retrieved on 31 December 2009. 
  65. "Ata Sporu – Cirit". Kalem.biz. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226023856/http://www.kalem.biz/yazi.asp?islem=yazidetay&id=1621&db=1&konusu=Ata%20Sporu%20Cirit. Retrieved on 31 December 2009. 
  66. "ICC Members: Turks and Caicos Islands". International Cricket Council. https://web.archive.org/web/20181226024010/https://www.icc-cricket.com/the-icc/icc_members/profile.php?countryCode=ICC_AFFILIATE_MEMBERS_TCISLANDS. Retrieved on 7 October 2012. 
  67. Duquette, Jerold J. (1999). Regulating the National Pastime: Baseball and Antitrust. Greenwood, 104. ISBN 0-275-96535-X. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. “Baseball justified its privileged legal status by citing the special nature and cultural significance of America's national pastime.” 
  68. Schrag, Myles (2003). ""known+as+the+national+pastime"&source=web&ots=YxBQqRmkgf&sig=IRgII2ZMuuM-dIFjGAo6aZau2vQ&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA140,M1 Baseball as National Pastime Revisted: And a Little Town Shall Lead Them", in Peter Carino: Baseball/literature/culture: Essays, 1995–2001. McFarland, Chp.13 p.140. ISBN 0-7864-1643-2. Retrieved on 21 July 2008. “Tradition – that quality so instrumental in elevating baseball to its century-old status as national pastime— has become less important” 
  69. Gmelch, George (2006-01-01). Baseball Without Borders: The International Pastime, 308. Retrieved on 2014-07-09. 
  70. Gmelch, George (2006-01-01). Baseball Without Borders: The International Pastime, 308. Retrieved on 2014-07-09. 
  71. Aponte, Pedro Rafael (2008). The Invention of the National in Venezuelan Art Music, 1920--1960 (UMI:3349149), 56. “Since it was first introduced in the country, baseball has been recognized in Venezuela as the national sport” 
  72. Harris, John (Summer 2006). "(Re)Presenting Wales: National Identity and Celebrity in the Postmodern Rugby World". North American Journal of Welsh Studies (North American Association for the Study of Welsh Culture and History) 6 (2). http://spruce.flint.umich.edu/~ellisjs/Harris.pdf. Retrieved on ۱۴ جولائی ۲۰۰۸. "rugby used to be the undisputed national sport of Wales […] Rugby Union’s assumed position as ”the national game” has often been questioned on the basis that it is predominantly a game played and followed in South Wales.". 

سانچہ:قومی علامات سانچہ:Use dmy dates