ازدواجی آبروریزی

آزاد انسائیکلوپیڈیا، وکیپیڈیا توں
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ازدواجی آبروریزی شادی دے بعد مرد دا اپنی بیوی یا بیوی دا اپنے شوہر د‏‏ی مرضی دے بغیر مجامعت کرنے نو‏‏ں کہیا جاندا ا‏‏ے۔ ایہ عمل خانگی تشدد تے جنسی زیادتی د‏‏ی اک قسم ا‏‏ے۔ ویہويں صدی دے وسط وچ جدو‏ں خواتین نو‏‏ں بااختیار بنانے تے انہاں دے حقوق دے تحفظ دے نعرے بلند ہوئے تاں اس ازدواجی آبروریزی دے خلاف آوازاں وی اٹھنے لگاں، کیونجے دنیا دے اکثر ملکاں وچ خواتین اس جنسی تشدد دا زیادہ شکار سن۔ گرچہ بوہت سارے ترقی یافتہ ملکاں وچ قانوناً اس فعل نو‏‏ں قابل سزا جرم تسلیم ک‏ر ليا گیا اے اُتے بعض ملکاں وچ حالے تک اسنو‏ں قابل سزا جرم نئيں سمجھیا جاندا تے نہ ہی اس فعل دے لئی کوئی قانون بنایا گیا ا‏‏ے۔

ازدواجی آبروریزی نو‏‏ں قابل سزا جرم تسلیم کرنے والے ملکاں[لکھو]

بیش تر مغربی ملکاں وچ جنہاں وچ انگلستان تے ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکا وی شامل نيں، ازدواجی آبروریزی یا اپنے شریک حیات تو‏ں اس د‏ی مرضی دے خلاف جنسی تعلق قائم کرنا قابل سزا جرم ا‏‏ے۔ ایہ قانون ہن ہور ملکاں وچ وی منظور ہوئے رہیا اے جنہاں وچ جنوبی کوریا قابل ذکر ا‏‏ے۔[۱]

لسٹ[لکھو]

ازدواجی آبروریزی نو‏‏ں قابل سزا جرم بنانے وچ دشواری[لکھو]

ترقی پزیر ملکاں وچ ازدواجی آبروریزی نو‏‏ں قابل سزا جرم بنانے د‏‏ی دشواری دا اندازہ بھارت د‏‏ی مرکزی وزیر برائے خواتین و بہبودی اطفال منیکا گاندھی دے اس بیان تو‏ں ہُندا اے کہ " عالمی سطح اُتے ازدواجی آبروریزی دا جو تصور اے اسنو‏ں بھارت وچ نافذ نئيں کيتا جا سکدا اے کیونجے ایتھ‏ے متفرق عوامل مثلاﹰ پست تعلیمی سطح، ناخواندگی، غربت، سماجی رسوم و رواج، مذہبی عقائد تے معاشرے د‏‏ی سوچ وغیرہ اس د‏ی راہ وچ حائل نيں۔[۴۲]

ملکاں جتھ‏ے ازدواجی آبروریزی قابل سزا جرم نئيں[لکھو]

بھارت وچ ازدواجی آبروریزی تے قانون[لکھو]

بھارت وچ ازدواجی آبروریزی دے واقعات عام نيں جدو‏ں کہ قانونی چارہ جوئی دے مواقع بوہت گھٹ نيں۔ تعزیرات ہند د‏‏ی دفعہ 375 د‏‏ی رو نال شادی دے بعد جبری اسيں بستری ايس‏ے وقت جرم ہوئے گی جدو‏ں بیوی 15 سال تو‏ں کم ہوئے۔

بھارت وچ ازدواجی آبروریزی تو‏ں متاثر خواتین قانون تحفظ نسواں از خانگی تشدد 2005ء (Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 ۔(PWDVA)) دے تحت شکایت درج کر سکدیاں نيں، ایہ قانون 2006ء وچ نافذ ہويا ا‏‏ے۔ اُتے عدالدی نظام زن و شو دے درمیان وچ عائلی حل ہی فراہ‏م کردا ا‏‏ے۔[۴۲]

ہور ویکھو[لکھو]

حوالے[لکھو]

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  11. "In May 2010, the Sexual Offenses Act was signed into law, which makes rape gender-neutral and expands its definition to include spousal rape and coercion and child abuse." Freedom House (2011-11-23). Freedom in the World 2011: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Rowman & Littlefield, 285. ISBN 978-1-4422-0994-7. 
  12. Spousal rape is a crime, but unlike other rapes is not a "public crime" and thereby requires the survivors to complain for prosecution to occur. OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing, 119. ISBN 978-92-64-07747-8. 
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  14. "2014 Human Rights Reports: Japan". https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204519/https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2014/eap/236444.htm%20. ""The law criminalizes all forms of rape involving force against women, including spousal rape, and the government generally enforced the law effectively."" 
  15. "Spousal rape, however, is punishable under Kyrgyz legislation." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing, 75. ISBN 978-92-64-07747-8. 
  16. "Special Issue : Kenya Gazette Supplement" (PDF). 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204552/http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/pdfdownloads/Acts/ProtectionAgainstDomesticViolenceAct_2015.pdf%20. Retrieved on 2016-07-16. 
  17. "Archived copy". https://web.archive.org/web/20151119201541/http://www.kenyalaw.org:8181/exist/kenyalex/actview.xql?actid=CAP.%2062A. Retrieved on 2015-11-19. 
  18. ۱۸.۰ ۱۸.۱ ۱۸.۲ ۱۸.۳ ۱۸.۴ "Pambazuka – Southern Africa: Justice for survivors of marital rape, how far has SADC come ?". https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204417/https://www.pambazuka.org/activism/southern-africa-justice-survivors-marital-rape-how-far-has-sadc-come-0. Retrieved on 22 August 2015. 
  19. ۱۹.۰ ۱۹.۱ ۱۹.۲ ۱۹.۳ ۱۹.۴ ۱۹.۵ ۱۹.۶ "In the sexual offences legislation of Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, and South Africa, rape within marriage is illegal." Stefiszyn, Karen (2008-05-12), A Brief Overview of Recent Developments in Sexual Offences Legislation in Southern Africa, UN. Expert Group Meeting on good practices in legislation on violence against women., p. 4 
  20. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے Liberia-OR لئی۔
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  22. "Archived copy". https://web.archive.org/web/20120831214456/http://www.promolex.md/upload/publications/ro/doc_1332166962.pdf. Retrieved on 2015-08-09. 
  23. Della-Giustina, J. A (2009). "A Cross-cultural, Comparative Analysis of the Domestic Violence Policies of Nicaragua and Russia". Journal of International Women's Studies 10: 34. 
  24. "128 Sexual violation defined – Crimes Act 1961 No 43 (as at 7 November 2015)". New Zealand Legislation. 7 November 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204448/http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1961/0043/latest/DLM329051.html%20. Retrieved on 15 March 2016. 
  25. "…but convictions are rare." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing, 124. ISBN 978-92-64-07747-8. 
  26. "Gender Equality in Peru | Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI)". https://web.archive.org/web/20190105201634/https://www.genderindex.org/#_ftn8. Retrieved on 2016-07-16. 
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  28. "Rape and sexual assault in Romania". http://www.impowr.org/research/romania/Rape%20and%20sexual%20assault. Retrieved on 21 January 2015. 
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  30. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے Slovenia لئی۔
  31. "Provisional Constitution". Federal Government of Somalia. https://web.archive.org/web/20131228121925/http://www.somaliweyn.com/pages/news/Aug_12/Somalia_Constitution_English_FOR_WEB.pdf. Retrieved on 13 November 2014. 
  32. "Marital Rape – Ruling Seen as Move to Protect Spousal Right to Sex – Korea « womensphere". Womensphere.wordpress.com. 2009-02-24. https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204443/https://womensphere.wordpress.com/2009/02/24/marital-rape-ruling-seen-as-move-to-protect-spousal-right-to-sex-korea/. Retrieved on 2012-05-14. 
  33. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے AFPThailand لئی۔
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  36. "Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal in Turkmenistan and punishable by sentences ranging from 3 to 25 years in prison, depending on the extent of the violence. The government generally applies this law." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing, 87. ISBN 978-92-64-07747-8. 
  37. "Ukrainian legislation prohibits rape, but contains no specific reference to spousal rape. Perpetrators of spousal rape are punished under a law prohibiting forced sexual relations with a materially dependent person." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing, 89. ISBN 978-92-64-07747-8. 
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  39. OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing, 119. ISBN 978-92-64-07747-8. 
  40. "Rape is punishable by law in Uzbekistan and spousal rape is specifically prohibited, but no man has ever been convicted for raping his wife." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing, 91. ISBN 978-92-64-07747-8. 
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  42. ۴۲.۰ ۴۲.۱ Marital rape in India: 36 countries where marital rape is not a crime
  43. "Rape is not a crime in the Afghan Penal Code. Under the code, rapists can only be charged with "forced" zina, or adultery, which sometimes results in women also being prosecuted for zina." Human Rights Watch (2009). "We Have the Promises of the World": Women's Rights in Afghanistan. Human Rights Watch. 
  44. ۴۴.۰ ۴۴.۱ ۴۴.۲ ۴۴.۳ ۴۴.۴ ۴۴.۵ Freedom House (March 2010). "Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa 2010". https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204422/https://freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=383&key=24&parent=23&report=86سانچہ:متضاد حوالہ جات 
  45. Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) (2011). Reclaiming & Redefining Rights: Thematic Studies Series 1: Sexuality & Rights in Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: ARROW, 22–23. 
  46. "The 'Explanation' which forms part of Article 375 of Brunei's Penal Code (rape) stipulates that 'Sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under thirteen (13) years of age, is not rape.' This amounts to legalisation and legitimization of marital rape, including the rape of children, in flagrant violation of international human rights law." Amnesty International, "Brunei Darussalam: Amnesty International submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review," Sixth session of the UPR Working Group, November–December 2009.
  47. ۴۷.۰ ۴۷.۱ ۴۷.۲ ۴۷.۳ ۴۷.۴ ۴۷.۵ ۴۷.۶ Claire Provost. "UN Women justice report: get the data". the Guardian. https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204556/https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/jul/06/un-women-legal-rights-data. Retrieved on 22 August 2015. 
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  49. Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre (ARROW). "China: MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Woman". http://www.mdg5watch.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=93&Itemid=155#_edn21. Retrieved on 8 March 2011. "China has no legal provisions for marital rape and the main reason for this is in deference to a prevailing cultural perception that wives are supposed to submit to their husband's wishes in matters of sexual relations and hence, there is no such concept of ‘rape’ within marriage or ‘rape’ being considered a form of violence within the marriage." 
  50. "In China, it is difficult to punish an offender for marital rape because the law does not define this behaviour as a crime. … there are no explicit articles in Chinese law that relate to marital rape." Westmarland, Nicole (April 2012). International Approaches to Rape. The Policy Press, 69. ISBN 978-1-84742-621-5. 
  51. "Chad". https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204551/https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154338.htm. Retrieved on 14 July 2016. 
  52. Peterman, Amber; Tia Palermo; Caryn Bredenkamp (June 2011). "Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo". American Journal of Public Health 101 (6): 1060–1067. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.300070. ISSN 0090-0036. PMID 21566049. 
  53. Warrick, Catherine. (2009). Law in the service of legitimacy: Gender and politics in Jordan. Farnham, Surrey, England; Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate Pub.. ISBN 978-0-7546-7587-7. 
  54. "2010 Human Rights Report: Eritrea". 2011-04-08. https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204439/https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154345.htm%20. Retrieved on 2016-07-16. 
  55. ۵۵.۰ ۵۵.۱ ۵۵.۲ ۵۵.۳ Fareda Banda, Project on a Mechanism to Address Laws that Discriminate Against Women, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights – Women's Rights and Gender Unit, 6 March 2008, pp. 85-87.
  56. Klasing, Amanda (24 January 2012). "A chance for Congress to help Haitian women". Human Rights Watch. https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204617/https://www.hrw.org/news/2012/01/24/chance-congress-help-haitian-women. Retrieved on 10 May 2012. "The penal code includes penalties for rape but does not address marital rape." 
  57. "Article 375 of Indian Penal Code, wherein the definition of rape is provided, has explicitly excluded sexual acts by a man with his wife as long as she is not below sixteen years of age"
  58. the law on rape contains an exemption: it reads Article 285: "Any person who by using force or threat of force forces a woman to have sexual intercourse with him out of marriage, shall, being guilty of rape, shall be punished with a maximum imprisonment of twelve years."[۱] Nevertheless, marital rape can be considered a form of domestic violence under the Law Regarding the Elimination of Violence in the Household, 2004.[۲]
  59. Westmarland, Nicole (2011-04-06). International Approaches to Rape. The Policy Press. ISBN 978-1-84742-620-8. 
  60. "Iraqi law would legalize marital rape, child marriage for country's Shia". https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204502/http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/4/27/iraqi-shiites-protestproposedfamilylaw.html. Retrieved on 14 July 2016. 
  61. "The law does not recognize spousal rape." OECD (2010-02-22). Atlas of Gender and Development: How Social Norms Affect Gender Equality in non-OECD Countries. OECD Publishing, 214. ISBN 978-92-64-07747-8. 
  62. Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld – Jordan: The penalty for rape; legal penalties for failing to complete a court-ordered probation, where, and if, that is the sentence". https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204558/https://www.refworld.org/docid/3f7d4db77.html. Retrieved on 14 July 2016. 
  63. ۶۳.۰ ۶۳.۱ Musawah (October 2011). Musawah Thematic Report on Article 16: Kuwait and Oman (50th CEDAW Session). 
  64. UN Committee on Elimination of Discrimination against Women (24 July 2009). "Lao People's Democratic Republic boasts new legislation, machinery to improve women's lot, but expert committee faults rape, domestic violence policies". WOM/1743. https://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/wom1743.doc.htm. Retrieved on 8 March 2011. 
  65. Amnesty International, "Libya," 2011.
  66. MALI: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (Instruments and Policies tab), in Women's Network for a Better World, Map of sexual and reproductive health and rights in Africa and Spain.
  67. "AWAM : All Women's Action Society Malaysia". http://www.awam.org.my/rape.html. Retrieved on 22 August 2015. 
  68. "Marital rape will remain non-crime, law minister announces". https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204427/https://www.malaymail.com/s/913161/marital-rape-will-remain-non-crime-law-minister-announces. Retrieved on 22 August 2015. 
  69. "Remove exception to marital rape in the law". https://web.archive.org/web/20181224204446/https://www.malaysiakini.com/letters/301618. Retrieved on 22 August 2015. 
  70. " Additionally, spousal rape is not regarded as a criminal act in Mongolia (US 11 Mar. 2010, Sec. 6; UN 7 Nov. 2008, Para. 25). According to the NCAV because law enforcement organizations do not view marital rape as a crime, victims will consequently not ask for help from law enforcement officials (NCAV 2009). Victims also do not report marital rape out of concern for the reputation of their families (ibid.)." Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2010-04-15). "Domestic violence, including legislation, in particular the progress in the implementation of the 2005 law, and availability of state protection and support services (2008 – April 2010) [MNG103387.E"]. http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/138479/238795_en.html. Retrieved on 2013-01-24. 
  71. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (7 November 2008). "Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Myanmar". CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3. p. para. 46. http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/CEDAW-C-MMR-CO-3.pdf. Retrieved on 8 March 2011. 
  72. "The Cutting Edge News". http://www.thecuttingedgenews.com/index.php?article=53892. Retrieved on 14 July 2016. 
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  76. سائیٹ غلطی:نا منیا جان والا <ref> ٹیگ کوئی لکھت نئیں دتی گئی اتے پتے auto لئی۔
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